Sydney Smith Haldimand Dickens

Sydney Smith Haldimand Dickens


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Sydney Smith Haldimand Dickens, the son of Charles Dickens and Catherine Hogarth Dickens, was born on 18th April, 1847. It was an exceptionally painful labour and was probably a breech delivery. Between 1844 and 1847 she gave birth to three sons, none of them desired by Dickens, although he warmed to each of them during their baby years. According to one brother: "He was given the name of the Ocean Spectre, from a strange little weird, yet most attractive, look in his large wondering eyes." Lucinda Hawksley has argued: "A slight, seemingly fragile boy... he had always been a strange-looking child, with his too-slender frame made even more striking by disproportionately large eyes."

In 1855 Sydney was sent to a boarding school for English boys in Boulogne, run by two English clergymen, one of whom had been a teacher at Eton College. His brothers, Frank Jeffrey , Alfred D'Orsay Tennyson and Henry Fielding Dickens , also attended the school. Henry did not enjoy the experience: "It was confined to English boys who were sent there, presumably, with a view to their becoming proficient in the French language. I was very young then, and although two of my brothers were at the school, I felt rather sad and forlorn. I cannot say I look back on my days there with any degree of pleasure. I did not quite like dining off tin plates, nor was the food altogether appetizing. Very pale veal with very, very watery gravy and the usual stick-jaw pudding were most often the delicacies put before us." The boys were given two months vacation in summer, and none at Christmas unless the parents wished to see them then. It meant that they could be away from home for nearly ten months of the year.

Sydney left the school at thirteen he joined Eastman's Naval Academy in Southsea, intending to train as a naval officer. Arthur A. Adrian has pointed out: "As a child he had always been a great favourite with his father and Aunt Georgy. Later, as he prepared for a naval career, he gave them cause for pride.... He was pint size - only three feet tall when he began his cadetship at age thirteen-and, Dickens told Georgina, could easily have lived in his sea chest."

On 11th September 1860, aged 14, he joined the Royal Navy as a cadet on the training ship HMS Britannia. After his initial training he was posted to HMS Orlando on 6th December 1861 and was promoted midshipman the following year. On 19 May 1864 his career suffered a setback when he was docked a year's seniority "for misconduct". He was promoted to acting sub-lieutenant in 1867.

Arthur A. Adrian has commented that " there were ominous signs that Sydney could not resist the family tendency toward extravagance". Sydney wrote to his father: "I must apply to you I am sorry to say and if you won't assist me I'm ruined". Dickens did pay off his debts but it was not long before he was asking for money again. "You can't understand how ashamed I am to appeal to you again... If any promises for future amends can be relied on you have mine most cordially, but for God's sake assist me now, it is a lesson I'm not likely to forget if you do and if you do not I can never forget. The result of your refusal is terrible to think of." Dickens wrote to Henry Fielding Dickens on 20th May, 1870: "I fear Sydney is much too far gone for recovery, and I begin to wish he were honestly dead." Dickens told his son that he was no longer welcome at Gad's Hill Place .

Whilst serving on Topaze Sydney was invalided out of the Navy due to ill health on 22nd April 1872. He remained aboard the ship for the passage home from India to England, and died at sea a few days later. He was buried at sea in the Indian Ocean.

Sydney went into the Navy, and died on his way home on sick leave in May, 1872, and was buried in the Indian Ocean. He was the boy who, in his childhood days, went by the name of "the Ocean Spectre," from a strange little weird, yet most attractive, look in his large wondering eyes.

For Sydney, the one following Alfred, there had been high hopes. As a child he had always been a great favourite with his father and Aunt Georgy. Later, as he prepared for a naval career, he gave them cause for pride. Known in training at Portsmouth as "Young Dickens - who can do everything", he passed his cadet examination and came home "all eyes and gold buttons". Henceforth he was referred to in his family as "the Admiral". He was pint size-only three feet tall when he began his cadetship at age thirteen-and, Dickens told Georgina, could easily have lived in his sea chest. On his training ship, where his enormous popularity impressed his father, he was hoisted into his hammock by his mates the first night, but promptly leaped out again and insisted on getting in by himself. In 1861 he got a coveted appointment on the H.M.S. Orlando. The next year his father, writing to Cerjat, called the young midshipman "a born little sailor" who would "make his way anywhere". But soon there were ominous signs that Sydney could not resist the family tendency toward extravagance. Rumour had it that while his ship was harboured at Bermuda he made "prodigious purchases of luxuries" -guava jelly, rahat-lakoum, bananas, boot-laces - much to the delight, of course, of the coloured bumboat woman, Mrs. Dinah Browne, who invited him to have tea with her on shore, where, in her primitive native cabin, she entertained him with "charming coon-songs in a rich ... contralto voice".

He soon set sail again, this time for West Africa on board the Antelope. A slight, seemingly fragile boy, the 'Ocean Spectre' had always been a strange-looking child, with his too-slender frame made even more striking by disproportionately large eyes. A picture still owned by the family, painted by Frank Stone, shows Sydney as a young boy, dressed in ghost-like white, standing beside a garden trellis. He appears nervous, ready to bolt, as if the viewer has come upon him unexpectedly. He clings to a part of the trellis, holding on to a child-size spade, his eyes peering out worriedly, as if trying to lose himself among the greenery. It is a world away from the brave young man of just a few years later who, having overcome all the physical hurdles of military training, at the age of nineteen set sail for three long years away. The family was deeply saddened to see him go. For those children left at home, it must have seemed that their father was determined to send them all away. Quite why Charles was so keen to scatter his much-loved sons around the globe is a question that has never been satisfactorily answered. His letters show that every departure hurt him dreadfully, but he persisted in doing so. This was not an age when a child in Australia could be easily visited; he knew perfectly well that every time one of his sons left he might never see him again. For many decades, quite astonishing rumours were spread about Catherine Dickens, in order to exonerate Charles's decision to separate from her. As well as the whispers that she was an alcoholic or was illiterate, there were even claims that it was she who insisted her sons be sent abroad and that Charles could only obey. These claims are frustrating not only for their in¬accuracy but for their stupidity. What they fail to explain is how Catherine, already denied the right even to visit her own children in London, could possibly have wielded enough power to insist her estranged husband send their sons abroad.

If only all economic affairs could have been handled as satisfactorily! But so far all attempts to curb Sydney's extravagance and clear up his mounting debts had failed.... Sydney's good intentions went no further than empty promises. No sooner had his father straightened out one set of arrears than there were others. Time and again there arrived embarrassing reminders from the boy's agents: "We beg to inform you that a bill drawn by your son." Finally Dickens set himself sternly against the spendthrift. Georgina, her heart heavy, felt more poignantly than ever his disappointment in the boys. This last experience she saw as his hardest to lose faith in the son who had so fascinated him as a baby, the"`Ocean Spectre" who had looked so fixedly out over the sea in childhood, the "Little Admiral" who had come home from training, all eyes and buttons. And now Sydney had to be told that he would not be received at Gad's Hill on his return to England. It was the last letter his father ever sent him.

Even while Sydney's bills were pouring in, Dickens was writing to Australia about Plorn's poor judgment in leaving the situation provided for him. Admitting himself "quite prepared" for the failure of this youngest son to settle down "without a lurch or two", he tried to defend the boy as having "more, au fond, than his brothers'. Plorn deserved a`reasonable trial', for lie had "the makings of a character restlessly within him".

In April, Charley formally took over from Wills at All the Year Round. Then, on 2 June, Dickens added a codicil to his will giving Charley the whole of his own share and interest in the magazine, with all its stock and effects. In this way he did the best he could to look after the future of his beloved first-born son, in whom he had once placed such hopes: he would not - could not - now give up on him, in spite of his failures and bankruptcy. Henry continued to do well at Cambridge and could be relied on to make his own way. In May he wrote to his fourth son, Alfred, expressing his "unbounded faith" in his future in Australia, but doubting whether Plorn was taking to life there, and mentioning Sydney's debts: "I fear Sydney is much too far gone for recovery, and I begin to wish that he were honestly dead." Words so chill they are hard to believe, with which Sydney was cast off as Walter had been when he got into debt, and brother Fred when he became too troublesome, and Catherine when she opposed his will. Once Dickens had drawn a line he was pitiless.

The conflicting elements in his character produced many puzzles and surprises. Why was Charley forgiven for failure and restored to favour, Walter and Sydney not? Because Charley was the child of his youth and first success, perhaps. But all his sons baffled him, and their incapacity frightened him: he saw them as a long line of versions of himself that had come out badly. He resented the fact that they had grown up in comfort and with no conception of the poverty lie had worked his way out of, and so he cast them off; yet he was a man whose tenderness of heart showed itself time and time again in his dealings with the poor, the dispossessed, the needy, other people's children.


찰스 디킨스

찰스 존 허펌 디킨스( 영어: Charles John Huffam Dickens , 문화어: 챨즈 디킨즈, 1812년 2월 7일 - 1870년 6월 9일)는 빅토리아 시대에 활동한 영국의 소설가이다.

화가 시모어(Robert Seymour)의 만화를 위해 쓰기 시작한 희곡 소설 《The Pickwick Papers(원제:The Posthumous Papers of the Pickwick Club)》(픽윅 보고서 [1] )를 분책(分冊)으로 출판하여 일약 유명해졌다. 그는 특히 가난한 사람에 대한 깊은 동정을 보이고, 사회의 악습에 반격을 가하면서, 사회에 대한 실제의 일들의 묘사를 이야기 형식으로 완성했다. 후기 소설에는 초기의 넘치는 풍자는 약해졌으나, 구성의 치밀함과 사회 비평의 심화는 주목할 만하다. 그의 작품으로 자전적 요소가 짙은 《데이비드 코퍼필드》 《위대한 유산》 등을 비롯 《올리버 트위스트》 《크리스마스 캐럴》 《두 도시의 이야기》 등이 있다.

어린시절 편집

찰스 디킨스는 영국의 포츠머스에서 해군 경리국의 하급 관리였던 존 디킨스와 그의 아내 엘리자베스 배로의 슬하 여덟 아이 가운데 둘째 아들로 1812년 2월 7일 태어났다. 찰스가 다섯 살 때, 가족은 채텀(Chatham)으로 이사했다. 그리고 그가 열 살 때, 가족은 다시 런던의 캄덴으로 이사했다.

사립학교에서 약간의 교육을 받았지만, 경제관념이 부족했던 아버지가 채무 관계로 갇히면서 가세가 점점 기울었다. 디킨스는 공부에 더 많은 관심을 보였으나, 부모님의 권유로 돈을 벌기 위해 12살 때 런던의 한 구두약 공장에 견습공으로 취직하여 열악한 환경 속에서 하루 10시간의 노동을 해야 했다. 이로 인해 디킨스는 어른들을 믿지 못하게 되었고, 이 경험은 그에게 큰 상처를 남겼으며, 자서전적인 소설인 《데이비드 코퍼필드》(1849∼1850)에는 중산층에 속한다고 생각했던 어린 찰스가 노동자로 전락하여 느끼는 고통스러운 좌절감이 잘 나타나 있다. 자본주의 발흥기(勃興期)에 접어들던 19세기 전반기의 영국 대도시에서는, 번영의 이면에 무서운 빈곤과 비인도적인 노동(연소자의 혹사 등)의 어두운 면이 있었다. [2]

글을 쓰다 편집

디킨스는 중학 과정의 학교를 2년 정도 다니다가 15세때 변호사 사무실에서 사환을 했으며 다음해 1828년 법원의 속기사를 거쳐서 신문사 속기 기자가 되었다. 이후 그는 여러 신문사에 글을 기고하게 되는데, 1834년 《아침 신문》의 의회 담당 기자가 되어 처음으로 ‘보즈’라는 필명으로 런던의 삶에 대한 여러 편의 글을 발표했고, 1835년 조지 호가스가 편집인인 《저녁 신문》에 〈런던의 풍경〉 등 여러 글을 기고했다. 디킨스는 조지 호가스와 인연을 맺으면서 그의 딸인 캐서린과 결혼하게 되었고, 처제인 메리를 데리고 첼시에 정착하는데, 메리가 1837년에 갑작스러운 병으로 죽자 엄청난 충격을 받았다. 순수했던 메리에 대한 그리움은 나중에 《골동품 가게 이야기》(1840∼1841)에서 어린 넬로 재현된다.

세상을 떠나다 편집

소설의 인기로 많은 돈을 벌게 된 디킨스는 가정적으로는 별로 행복하지 못했다. 결국 거듭된 과로로 인해 《에드윈 드루드의 비밀》을 완성하지 못하고, 1870년 6월 9일 58세의 나이로 개즈 힐에서 숨을 거두었다. 이후 디킨스는 성공회 교회인 웨스트민스터 사원의 시인들의 묘역에 안장되었다. 그의 묘비에는 다음과 같이 씌어 있다.

디킨스가 세상을 떠났다는 말을 듣고 노동자들은 주막에서 “우리의 친구가 죽었다”고 울부짖었다 한다. 디킨스의 사망 소식에 당시 신문과 잡지들은 며칠 동안 그의 일대기로 지면을 도배하다시피 했다. 한 신문의 부고는 디킨스의 소설이 갖는 시대적 의미를 보여준다.

사회비판 편집

그의 작품 중에서 가장 잘 알려진 것들을 몇 작품 든다면, 《위대한 유산》, 《데이비드 코퍼필드》, 《올리버 트위스트》, 《니콜라스 니클비》, 《크리스마스 캐럴》 등이 있다. 그의 사후에 출판된 책으로는 《예수 그리스도의 생애》가 있는데, 예수 그리스도를 신앙의 대상이 아닌, 본받음의 대상으로 따르려고 하고 있다. 그의 자녀들에게 그리스도에 대해 쉽게 설명하기 위해서 쓴 책이기 때문이다. 《데이비드 코퍼필드》는 논쟁의 여지는 있지만, 그의 대표적인 소설이며 자서전적인 이야기를 담고 있다. 《Little Dorrit》은 신랄한 풍자로 이루어진 명작이다.

디킨스의 소설들은 사회적인 기록을 작품으로 옮긴 것들이었다. 그는 빅토리아 시대의 빈곤과 사회 계층에 대한 신랄한 비평가였다.

연극 편집

디킨스는 세상에서 탈출하는 한 수단으로 연극에 매료되었고, 이러한 연극과 연극인에 대한 그의 태도는 그의 작품 《니콜라스 니클비》에 녹아 있다. 디킨즈 자신도 자신의 작품의 장면들을 대중들 앞에서 매우 자주 낭독하여 연출가로서의 역량을 보여 주었다. 그는 공연 투어를 통해 영국 전역과 미국을 널리 여행했다.

디킨스의 작품 스타일은 현란하고 시적이다. 영국 귀족주의의 속물근성에 대한 그의 풍자 — 그는 그의 작품 속에서 그러한 인물을 “고귀한 냉장고”라고 부른 바 있다 — 는 사악할 정도로 익살맞다. 그의 소설속에 나오는 인물 중의 몇몇은 괴기스럽기까지 하여, 그의 작품중에는 유령이 등장하거나, 유령 이야기가 나열되는 작품들이 있다. 예를 들면 [하나의 성탄절 벨]에는 일곱 명의 유령이 등장하는 데, 그에 맞서 싸우는 스크루지가 묘사된다.

비판 편집

그와 동시대 작가 중 몇몇과 마찬가지로, 오늘날의 관점에서 볼 때 그의 작품들 중 몇 가지는 반유대주의로 비판되고 있다. 예를 들어, 《올리버 트위스트》의 패긴이라는 인물은 메부리코와 탐욕스러운 눈을 가진 전형적인 유대인으로 묘사되어 있다. 물론 디킨즈가 홀로코스트가 일어나기 이전의 사회에 살았음은 기억해두어야 한다. 그리고 단지 드라마틱한 효과를 위해서 그러한 인물을 설정했다는 것에도 일견 타당성이 있다. 《크리스마스 캐럴》에 등장하는 악역인 스크루지는 동양과 서양이 섞인 혼혈인으로 설정되었기 때문이다.

연민 편집

그의 전 작품을 통해, 디킨스는 보통 사람들에 대한 공감을 유지하고, 상류사회에 대한 회의를 간직하고 있었다. 《크리스마스 캐럴》에서 실업자, 성 노예자 등의 인물에 대한 연민을 찾아 볼 수 있다.

성찰 편집

디킨스의 탁월성은 대중성과 사회 현안에 대한 성찰에 있다. 디킨스의 인생에서 가장 흥미로운 것은 대중과의 연애였다. 그는 평생 대중과 연애하듯이 그들에게 충심을 다했고 그의 모든 일이 대중의 관심을 받았다. 그는 생애 마지막 10년 동안 소설 낭독을 위해 영국 곳곳과 미국을 여행했다. 가는 곳마다 대대적인 성공이었고 대중들의 눈물 어린 환대와 지역 유지의 영접을 받았다. 그의 낭송 여행은 개인적 이벤트로 생각되지 않았고 처음부터 끝까지 공적이며 국제적인 행사로 받아들여졌다. 디킨스에 대한 대중의 사랑은 평생 변함이 없었다. 그는 사람들의 마음에 호소하여 경탄을 받은 정도가 아니라 사랑을 받았고 친구로 여겨졌다. 디킨스는 마치 현대의 최고 할리우드 스타가 누리는 만큼의 대중적 인기를 소설가로서 누렸고, 현대 주요 일간지가 사회 현안에 미치는 영향만큼이나 그의 의견은 사회에 큰 영향을 미쳤다. 찰스 디킨스는 다시 말해 세계에서 가장 중요한 작가 중 하나이다.

찰스 디킨스는 가난에 대한 경험, 부의 경험도 누려본 작가로서 둘에 대한 비판을 수월하게 해내였다. 하지만 요즘에 화두에 오르는 매체에 의하면 찰스 디킨스는 가난한 사람들이 구걸할 때에는 귀찮다는 식으로 대했다고 한다. 하지만 이것은 루머일 뿐, 찰스 디킨스의 디킨지안(dickensian) 소설은 역사에 길이 남을 것이다.

디킨스는 전통 피카레스크 소설, 멜로드라마, 감상 소설 등에서 다양한 문학적 영향을 받았다. 영국 전기 작가 피터 애크로이드는 디킨스가 가장 중요한 영향을 ‘아리비안 나이트’에서 받았다고 말한다. 피카레스크 소설의 중심은 풍자와 아이러니다. 코미디도 피카레스크 소설에서 빼놓을 수 없으며 로렌스 스턴, 헨리 필딩, 토비아스 스몰렛이 주축이 된 영국 전통 피카레스크 소설을 이끌었다. 필딩의 ‘기아 톰 존스의 이야기(The History of Tom Jones, a Foundling)’는 디킨스를 포함한 19세기 후반 소설가들에게 주요한 영향력을 행사했다. 심지어 디킨스는 필딩의 책을 유년시절에 읽고 그의 아들에게 ‘헨리 필딩 디킨스’ 라는 이름을 지어줬다.

디킨스의 문체는 언어적 창의성이 풍부하다. 캐리커처에 재능이 있는 디킨스는 풍자를 실감나게 잘한다. 초기 평론가들은 디킨스가 예리하고 실용적인 감각으로 유쾌한 삶을 포착해내는 점이 로코코 시대의 영국의 화가 윌리엄 호가스와 비슷하다고 생각했다. 그러나 호가스와 다르게 디킨스는 동시대의 인기 있는 극장의 관습을 반영하여 내용을 다양한 계층 언어로 표현하였고 이에 극찬을 받았다. 디킨스는 독자들을 사로잡을 등장인물의 이름을 창작해는 것에 집중하였는데 독자들이 연관성을 느끼고, “우화적 자극”으로 소설의 의미를 주제에 담을 수 있게 하기 위해서였다. 많은 예시들 중 하나를 가져오자면 책 ‘데이비드 코퍼필드(David Copperfield)’ 에서의 등장인물 ‘에드워드 머드스톤(Edward Murdstone)’은 쌍둥이가 암시한 살인(murder)과 돌(stone)처럼 차가운 냉기를 떠오르게 한다. 또한 디킨스의 문체는 환상과 현실이 조화롭게 어울린다. 디킨스가 영국의 귀족적 속물 근성을 풍자한 것은 유명하다. (그는 한 인물을 “고귀한 냉장고” 로 불렀다) 환상의 비행이라고 극찬 받은 비유에는 고아를 주식/배당금에, 사람들을 줄다리기에, 저녁 만찬 손님을 가구에 비유한 것이 있다.

디킨스는 삽화가들에게 전체적 스토리를 먼저 제공하여 등장인물 및 설정을 그가 생각한대로 정확히 그려 낼 수 있게 했다. 삽화가에게 1달분의 삽화 계획을 미리 준 후 디킨스는 글을 썼다. 책 “Our Mutual Friend”의 삽화가인 마커스 스톤은 디킨스를 회상하며 그가 “한 등장인물의 아주 작은 특징과 내가 창작해 낸 인물의 생애를 세세하게 묘사할 준비”를 강조했던 것을 기억한다.


The Haunted Man and the Ghost's Bargain.

First edition, presentation copy, inscribed by the author on the half-title "William Haldimand Esquire With the cordial remembrance and regard of Charles Dickens Twenty ninth March 1849".

A former director of the Bank of England and a Member of Parliament for Ipswich, William Haldimand (1784-1862) was the brother-in-law of William de Cerjat, one of Dickens's lifelong friends and correspondents. Dickens met Haldimand during his visit to Switzerland in 1846, where Haldimand had retired in 1828. This was a time of some mental frustration for Dickens, and he gained some relief by reading the first number of Dombey and Son to Haldimand and Cerjat. Haldimand's friendship was evidently of some significance to Dickens he named his seventh child Sydney Smith Haldimand Dickens.

The Haunted Man, published on 19 December 1848, was the fifth and final of Dickens's Christmas books. "As soon as he returned from Broadstairs to London, he started work on the Christmas Book he had for so long been contemplating, a book about lost time. The Haunted Man and the Ghost's Bargain is concerned with the power of memory, with family life which is destroyed and replaced only by the wretched anxieties of a distinguished but solitary man. the theme itself revolves around Dickens's belief that memory is a softening and chastening power, that the recollections of old sufferings and old wrongs can be used to touch the heart and elicit sympathy with the sufferings of others. It has been said that in this autobiographical fragment Dickens is only suppressing his feelings of hurt and jealous rage, but it seems more likely that he was actively involved, after Fanny's death, in the process of transcending them" (Ackroyd, p. 553).

Provenance: the Comte Alain de Suzannet, with his bookplate to front pastedown (this copy not recorded in the catalogue for the sale of his collection at Sotheby's, 22 November 1971) the collector Michael Sharpe, morocco book-label to front pastedown the Lawrence Drizen Collection of Charles Dickens.

Description

Octavo. Original red cloth, titles and decoration to spine and front cover in gilt, frame stamped in blind to covers, yellow endpapers, gilt edges. Housed in a custom red half morocco box and chemise.

Illustrations

Frontispiece, engraved title page, and 15 illustrations in the text, by Leech, Stanfield, Tenniel and Stone.

Condition

Neat early ownership signature to front free endpaper. Wear at spine and joint ends, top of backstrip loosening, light soiling and rubbing to cloth front hinge starting, initial leaves loosening but stitching holding still very good copy in the original cloth.


Sydney Smith Haldimand Dickens

Sydney Smith Haldimand DICKENS (18a de aprilo 1847 – 2a de majo 1872) estis oficiro de la Reĝa Mararmeo kaj la sepa gefilo kaj kvina filo de la fama angla romanisto Charles Dickens kaj de lia edzino Catherine. [1]

Kiam liaj gepatroj separiĝis en 1858, kaj Catherine foriris el la hejmo, por neniam revidi sian edzon, ŝi kunportis nur unu filon nome Charles, lasante la aliajn filojn zorgotajn de sia fratino Georgina kiu decidis resti en Gad's Hill kun la romanisto.

Li estis edukita en la Militlernejo Brackenbury de Wimbledon kaj en la pensionlernejo de Mr Gibson en Boulogne-sur-Mer, kun siaj fratoj, Alfred kaj Henry. [2] En la 11a de septembro 1860, estante 14-jaraĝa, Sydney Dickens aliĝis al la Reĝa Mararmeo kiel lernanto en la lernoŝipo "Britannia·. Dum postaj jaroj li promociis al rangoj de midŝipmano kaj ĝis leŭtenanto. Charles Dickens fieris pri la mararmea kariero de Sydney, sed malkontentis ĉar li falis en fortaj ŝuldoj, kaj li malakceptis helpi lin. [3]

Servante sur la "Topaze" Sydney Dickens estis nevalidigita for de la Mararmeo pro malsano la 22an de aprilo 1872. [4] Li restis surŝipe de la Topaze por reveni el Hindio al Anglio, kaj mortis mare kelkaj tagojn poste. [5] [4] Li estis "entombigita" maren en la Hinda Oceano. [6]


DICKENS Genealogy

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Dombey and Son

In Dombey and Son, considered Dickens first artistically mature work, he began using notes he called "mems" to outline how the novel would progress. It was after Dombey and Son was published that Dickens' reputation as a world class author was established.

The novel tells the story of Paul Dombey, powerful head of the House of Dombey. He wants a son and when a daughter (Florence) is born he despises her. His second child, a son (Paul), is weak and sickly and dies a child.

Mingled with this central thread is the story of Walter Gay and his uncle Solomon Gills, owner of the Wooden Midshipman, a nautical instruments shop. Walter Gay goes to work for the firm of Dombey and Son.


Jack Bunsby offers advise as to the fate of Walter's ship to Sol Gils, Susan Nipper, Florence, and Captain Cuttle

Solomon Gills goes in search of Walter, leaving the Wooden Midshipman to his friend Captain Edward Cuttle. After the breakup of her home, Florence leaves and is taken in by Captain Cuttle. Walter has survived the shipwreck and returns home. Walter and Florence are to be married, on the eve of their wedding day Solomon Gills returns home after wandering the earth looking for Walter. After the wedding Walter and Florence go to sea for a year. On the day of their return Florence is reconciled to her father. Solomon Gills produces the last bottle of the old Madeira he has been saving for just such an occasion, and all drink to Walter and Florence.


You will learn more about the lives and works of the two authors during the trip. Knowing that Charles Dickens and William Shakespeare were not coetaneous writers, try to find similarities and differences between the two.

You can also read the information in this link to help you:

Differences: Shakespeare Dickens

Similarities and relationships

They worked both human tragedies, human sensibilities and human feelings.They also loved and enjoyed literature a lot. Literature was their life.

They were born nearly 250 years apart , Shakespeare in 16th century and Dickens in 19th century. In their times Dickens was more famous as he could use the mass printing technologies which Shakespeare could not use.

Both of them express costums and traditions of their times. Shakespeare had a huge impact upon the world of literature, especially in Dickens, as Dickens studied him as a boy. They nicely worked the language but Shakespeare is much more lyrical than Dickens, whose language is poetry.

Dickens’ love of Shakespeare is in many of his books, like in Nicholas Nickleby or with the performance of Hamlet in Great Expectations. Other references are not very obvious but people say that the murder of Nancy in Oliver Twist reminds of Duncan’s murder in Macbeth, and Little Nell and her grandfather in The Old Curiosity Shop can be likened to Cordelia and King Lear. Dickens quotes and misquotes from Shakespeare hundreds of times.

We have also learned that both writers wanted to be popular, both wanted to be known and wrote their works for people to like them.

In 1847, Shakespeare’s birthplace was purchased for £3,000 by a public subscription. Charles Dickens was one of the leaders of the campaign, thus to save the building, raised money through performances of Shakespeare’s plays.

Charles Dickens’ tomb is in Westminster Abbey.

When Shakespeare died, some writers wanted to move Shakespeare’s bones from Stratford-Upon-Avon to Westminster Abbey, however in Shakespeare’s headstone says:

Good friend for Jesus sake forbear to dig the dust enclosed here!

Blest be the man that spares these stones,

And curst be he that moves my bones.”

Therefore his bones were not moved and Charles Dickens proposed a memorial to Shakespeare in Westminster Abbey, where it is nowadays.


Sydney Smith Haldimand Dickens - History

DICKENS, Charles (1812-1870). Novelist.
Autograph Letter Signed to Messrs Seagrove & Company, 1 page 8vo with blank leaf inlaid to remains of an album leaf, Gad's Hill Place, 28 July 1866. Asking them to supply whatever his son, Sydney Smith Dickens, with whatever he needed for his naval outfit.

Sydney Smith Haldimand Dickens (1847-1872) was the fifth son of Charles Dickens and his wife Catherine. He was born in London but received much of his education at Mr Gibson's boarding school in Boulogne along with his brothers Alfred and Henry. He joined the royal navy as a cadet in 1860 at the age of 14, rather to his father's satisfaction. His naval career was not distinguished: he was punished for misconduct and fell heavily into debt, so much so that his father refused to help him and in a letter to Alfred at one time stated that he wished him dead. Sydney fell ill at sea in 1872 and died on the voyage home.

Dickens had ordered a suit for his son from Messrs Skinner & Co of 50 Jermyn Street on 20 March this year (Letters, XI, p. 174 and note), and in August asked his publishers Chapman and Hall to send him books (to HMS 'Bristol') via Messrs Seagrove & Co. Only one letter from CD to Seagrove's is published (Letters, II, p. 297, where a footnote identifies Edward Augustus Seagrove as a royal naval and military outfitter of The Hard, Portsea). The present letter is apparently unpublished.
[No: 26608]


The Story of Dickens’ Wife Who Walked Out the Door and Left Her 10 Children Behind Forever

Catherine Dickens’ family life was not a simple one. She could’ve become an actress, a writer, or a chef but she became a wife of a genius and a mother of 10 children. The great English writer, Charles Dickens dreamed about having a big family and a wife who would keep his house warm. But after 20 years of living together, he saw a crazy person in the woman he once loved and didn’t have anything in common with her anymore.

Here at Bright Side, we want to share the story of how family happiness can harm you if you give up on your plans and talent, and devote yourself completely to your husband and children.

They were happy just like all newlyweds are.

Catherine Hogarth was a smart, young, good-looking 20-year-old woman when she met Charles Dickens in 1835. At the time, he was a journalist and he wasn’t famous at all. She grew up in a good family and was the daughter of an editor, musicologist, and a music critic along with a music publisher. Charles dreamed of having a strong, loving family and a wife who would be a good housewife and mother.

One year later, they got married and were happy just like most newlyweds. They were free, young, joyful, had no financial problems, and went to the theatre and social receptions.

“My best half, Mrs. D, and my dearest wife,” were how Charles often addressed his beloved Catherine.

I will never be as happy again as I was in that apartment on the 3rd floor even if become rich and famous,” Dickens remembered.

Their challenge with children

9 months after the wedding, in 1837, the couple had their first child, Charles Dickens Jr. Catherine had grown ill and it was hard for her to feed the child which led to postpartum depression.

Charles tried to support his wife and was happy that he had an heir. The writer was even more thrilled to have 4 more children. After having their fifth child, he grew depressed and it was the first time he complained that the gods were too generous with them.

It looks like we are going to have another child on New Year. Unlike the King from the tale, I keep praying to the gods to stop bothering themselves because I have enough already. But they tend to be very generous to those who deserve their favor!

Catherine could’ve become an actress or a writer.

During the time between being pregnant and giving birth, Catherine was still able to show that she could be a good mother as well as a wife. Mrs. Dickens acted in her husband’s plays and even wrote a cookbook called, What Shall We Have for Dinner? that was published in 1851. She collected the recipes to all of Charles’ favorite dishes, some tips on house management for young wives, and examples of reception plans for anywhere from 2 to 18 guests.

She also turned out to be a good travel companion. Before they had their fifth child, the Dickens family traveled to the US. The trip was difficult and dangerous but Catherine proved to be a strong, cheerful woman. Charles Dickens went further into this in a letter to his friend:

She overcame the first difficulties we had to face in the new circumstances and she showed herself as an experienced traveler. She never complains and never shows fear even in situations when I would think it was reasonable. She is always cheerful and strong even though we traveled through very tough lands for a month without any breaks she easily adapts to any situations and makes me happy with her courage.

The story of a bracelet and a scandal

Their fifth son Francis Jeffrey was born at the beginning of 1844.

For 15 years, Catherine either was pregnant, giving birth, or was feeding children. She had 2 miscarriages and the death of a daughter who lived for just 8 months. So in total, Mrs. Dickens gave birth to 10 children.

The English writer kept blaming his wife for her excessive fertility and constant state of pregnancy.

Catherine kept irritating him more and more. In the end, Charles Dickens came to the conclusion that they had never been a good match. He told all his friends that Catherine was not meant for him and that he wasn’t meant for her. He was too cold and apathetic, and she was too limiting, too overweight, not beautiful enough, and a bad mother. She was also too nervous, she cried too often, and was too jealous.


Inhoud

Die werk wat hom onmiddellik beroemd gemaak het, Pickwick Papers, het in 1837 verskyn, en dit, tesame met Sketches by Boz, wat reeds in 1836 verskyn het, was die begin van sy loopbaan.

Vooraf het daar 'n paar gebeurtenisse plaasgevind wat 'n beslissende invloed op hom sou hê en wat telkens weer sou terugkeer in sy romans en die talle artikels wat hy geskryf het. Sy oupa aan moederskant het geld verduister en na die eiland Man gevlug, terwyl die familie agtergebly het met die vrees vir die skande wat op sy moontlike terugkeer kon volg.

Sy pa was 'n klerk by die betaalkantoor van die Admiraliteit en kon nie met geld werk nie, en 'n poging van sy ma om 'n losieshuis vir gegoede meisies aan die gang te kry, het misluk. Sy pa, John Dickens, het as gevolg van skuld tronkstraf gekry en Charles moes in 1823 as etiketplakker in Warrens se skoenpolitoerfabriek gaan werk, 'n vernedering wat hom sy hele lewe lank sou bybly.

In 1827 het Dickens 'n hulpklerk by ʼn regspraktyk, Ellis en Blackmore, in Gray's Inn, geword. Daar het hy homself snelskrif geleer en twee jaar later was hy verslaggewer by een van die ou geregshowe in Londen, die Doctors' Commons. Later het hy parlementêre verslaggewer vir die True Sun en die Morning Chronicle geword. Dit was gedurende hierdie tyd dat hy Maria Beadnell ontmoet het, maar haar familie het die verliefde Dickens nie respektabel genoeg geag nie, trouens, sy ook nie.

In 1836 is hy met Catherine Hogart getroud en is die gereelde stukkies wat hy onder die skuilnaam Boz geskryf het, in die Monthly Magazine gepubliseer onder die opskrif Sketches by Boz en geïllustreer deur George Cruikshank (1792-1878). wat later ook Oliver Twist sou illustreer. Catherine het twee susters gehad, Mary en Geor gina. Mary, wat by Catherine en Charles gaan woon het, is op 17-jarige ouderdom oorlede. Haar vroeë dood het 'n diep indruk op Dickens gemaak. Georgina het later, nadat die huwelik met Catherine in 1858 ontbind is, huishoudster van die gesin geword. In 1837, toe Mary oorlede is, het Pickwick Papers verskyn, eers met illustrasies deur Robert Seymour (1798-1836) en ná sy selfmoord, met illustrasies deur Phiz (Hablot Knight Browne 1815-1882). Die avonture van die lede van die Pickwick Club, en die onsterflike bediende Sam Weller, het Dickens se roem as skrywer verseker.

Gedurende hierdie tydperk het Dickens agt boeke en 'n groot aantal verhale en artikels geskryf. Hy het 'n gewilde literêre persoonlikheid geword wat in noue voeling met die publiek was hy het 'n groot vriendekring opgebou en baie gereis, onder andere na Amerika (1842), Italië (1844/ 45) en Switserland (1846 tot 1848). Hy het, soos dit destyds gebruiklik was, maandeliks of weekliks in tydskrifte gepubliseer. So is Oliver Twist byvoorbeeld in 1838 in Bentley's Miscellany gepubliseer. Die verhaal is tipies Dickens: die weeshuise word aan die kaak gestel. Dickens se belangstelling in die misdadiger kom ook vir die eerste keer na vore in karakters soos Fagin en Bill Sikes.

Nicholas Nickleby, met die skerp uitbeelding van Mr Squeers se slegte skool, Dotheboys Hall in Yorkshire, het in 1839 in los aflewerings verskyn. The old Curiosity Shop, met die sentimentele dood van Little Nell, en Barnaby Rudge, oor die Gordon-onluste, is in 1841 as deel van 'n reeks gepubliseer. Die historiese Barnaby Rudge was die eerste roman waarin Dickens die maatskappy in sy geheel probeer beskrywe het. Uit sy Amerikaanse reis (Dickens het die land verafsku) het American Notes (1842) en die roman Martin Chuzzlewit (1843-1844), waarin die huigelaar Mr Pecksniff voorkom, ontstaan.

Van 1843 af het Dickens Kersverhale geskryf. Die beroemde A Christmas Carol (1843), met die gierige Scrooge, was die eerste van die sogenaamde "Christmas books", wat in groot mate bygedra het tot Dickens se gewildheid. The Chimes (1844) en The Cricket on the Hearth (1845) ressorteer ook hieronder. Pictures from Italy, geïllustreer deur Samuel Parker, was die resultaat van sy Italiaanse reis en is in 1846 deur die Daily News, wat deur Dickens opgerig is, uitgegee.

In Switserland het hy Dombey and son (1848) geskryf, wat 'n keerpunt in sy oeuvre was, want daarin was hy vir die eerste keer ernstig besig met die sielkunde van die kind, en in die uitbeelding van die sosiale klas het hy uitgestyg bo die skepping van amusante karakters. Ook die konstruksie in Dombey and son is opmerklik anders, terwyl die bou van die spoorlyn as simbool van die sosiale veranderinge en die kapitalistiese stelsel as spieël van die maatskappy in sy geheel, werklik funksioneel gebruik word.

Hierdie periode is afgesluit met David Copperfield (1850), wat grotendeels 'n outobiografiese roman is. In die karakter van Mr Micawber kan byvoorbeeld heelwat van Dickens se pa herken word, en in David se liefde vir Dora Spenlow dié van Dickens vir Maria Breadnell. Met hierdie romantisering van sy eie jeug het Dickens die verwondering wat hy uit sy jeugjare saamgedra het, finaal afgeskryf.

Die laaste periode staan in die teken van Dickens se egskeiding, sy sosiale bedrywighede, toneelvoorstellings en voorlesings uit sy eie werk. In hierdie laaste tydperk het hy heelwat tyd in Frankryk deurgebring en hy het in Gad's Hill naby Rochester, Kent, gewoon.

Uit sy betrokkenheid by die sosiale probleme het die groot romans Bleak House (1853) en Hard Times (1854) ontstaan, met hul interpretasie van die gruwels van die Industriële Revolusie. Hard Times was opgedra aan Thomas Carlyle. Hy het ook 'n minder geslaagde Child's history of England (1852-1854) geskryf, waarin sy konserwatisme duidelik na vore kom. In 1857 het Little Dorrit, met die satiriese beskrywing van die burokratiese Circumlocution office, verskyn. In 1857 het hy ook die aanvallige aktrise Ellen Ternan ontmoet, met wie hy later 'n verhouding gehad het. Sy egskeiding met Catherine het in 1858 plaasgevind en Dickens het breedvoerig daaroor verslag gedoen in die pers. Van 1858 af het hy feitlik oor die hele Engeland voorlesings uit sy werk gehou. Dickens het veral groot sukses gehad met die verhale oor die dood van Little Nell en dié van Paul Dombey vanweë die sentimentele inslag daarvan. Die reeks voorlesings wat hy in 1867 en 1868 in Amerika gehou het, het egter sy gesondheid erg aangetas.

Ná sy egskeiding het hy minder geskryf: net vier romans, waarvan die laaste, Edwin Drood, nooit voltooi is nie. In samewerking met Wilkie Collins het hy voortgegaan met werk vir sy weekblad, en vanaf 1850 het hy die redaksie van Household Words behartig, wat in 1859 die weekblad All the Year Round geword het.

A Tale of two Cities (1859) en die historiese roman Barnaby Rudge, met die Franse Revolusie as tema, was die laaste van sy werke wat deur Phiz geïllustreer is. In Great Expectations het hy in sekere sin teruggegryp na David Copperfield. In 'n boeiende en hegte konstruksie word beskryf hoe die jong man Pip, wat deur valse pretensies 'n snob geword het, leer om die werklikheid te aanvaar.

In 1865 het Our Mutual Friend verskyn, waarin daar minder van die laaste periode se somberheid te bespeur is, en in 1870 het die eerste aflewering verskyn van The Mystery of Edwin Brood. Dickens is egter voor die voltooiing daarvan op 9 Junie 1870 in Gad's Hill oorlede.

Charles Dickens is op die ereplek in Poets' Corner in die Westminster-abdy begrawe. Saam met Shakespeare is hy die Engelse skrywer wie se werk die meeste gelees is en word.


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