The Tank Turns 100

The Tank Turns 100


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Before dawn on the morning of September 15, 1916, a deep rumble suddenly shook the French countryside as the British launched a major offensive to capture the village of Courcelette. Waves of British soldiers vaulted over the top of their trenches accompanied by something that no German soldier—nor any soldier in battle, for that matter—had ever seen. For rising out of the mud and the darkness came a fleet of strange mechanical beasts creeping forward on conveyor-belt-like tracks wrapped around their wheels.

The British military hoped that its new weapon—the tank—could finally break the deadly impasse of the Battle of the Somme. Early in the war, British Army Colonel Ernest Swinton proposed the development of an armored vehicle that could traverse difficult terrain, and First Lord of the Admiralty Winston Churchill approved the development of the so-called “landships” in early 1915. Much of the design work was done by two men working secretly inside a Lincoln, England, hotel room near a threshing machine manufacturer commissioned to build the prototypes.

The first prototype, “Little Willie,” was tested in September 1915 to poor results. A second prototype, “Big Willie,” achieved much greater success and was deemed ready for battle. Swinton formed the Heavy Section of the Machine Gun Corps in March 1916 to train 500 recruits to operate the vehicles. Production workers noted that the oddly-shaped shells of the vehicles resembled water tanks, and they were secretly shipped to the front lines in crates labeled “tanks.” The name stuck.

Desperate to end the stalemate of the Battle of the Somme, the British rushed the new weapon into battle. The tanks lacked sufficient testing and their crews ample training. Tank crews had never trained with infantry units for this new type of warfare, and some had never even fired practice rounds from their guns. Of the 49 Mark I tanks sent to the battlefield, 17 were sidelined by mechanical malfunctions even before the offensive on Courcelette could begin.

While the 32 tanks sent into battle mowed down barbed wire, many struggled to cross the trenches and artillery craters in no-man’s land. Some were forced to be ditched in the broken ground. The new instrument of war, which moved at a walking pace of less than 4 miles per hour, proved too slow to hold positions during counterattacks.

The eight-man crews, including two drivers, who squeezed inside the tanks sweated through insufferable heat and were forced to communicate with hand signals thanks to the engine’s deafening din. They were alarmed to discover that the skin of the 29-ton machine also offered less protection than they had hoped. While some German troops, not knowing what to do against these unfamiliar terrestrial ironclads, ran away, others unleashed machine gun and pistol fire, grenades and artillery at the tanks. A barrage of bullets pierced the tanks’ armor, and scalding metal shards sprayed the crews like shrapnel, burning their hands and faces.

“We steamed ahead, squashing dead Germans as we went,” reported tank commander Lieutenant Basil Henriques of his vehicle’s progress. “As we approached the German line they let fire at us with might and main. At first no damage was done and we retaliated, killing about 20. Then a smash against my flap at the front caused splinters to come in and the blood to pour down my face. Another minute and my driver got the same.”

Armed with either 6-pounder cannons or machine guns, the primitive tanks failed to break the military deadlock of the Battle of the Somme. Only 9 tanks reached enemy territory, and only 3 returned to British lines, all too badly damaged to ever see action again. Nevertheless, British military leaders saw the potential of the new war machines. British Commander-in-Chief Sir Douglas Haig ordered the production of hundreds more.

“The tanks had limited success on that first day in military terms, however their success in terms of psychology shouldn’t be underestimated,” David Willey, curator of The Tank Museum in Bovington, England, told the BBC. “The German troops were terrified of these machines and for the British, the tanks were a huge morale boost. This was a British invention, designed to save soldiers’ lives, and it gave people hope, both on the front line and back at home.”

The Mark I was remodeled several times before war’s end, and better-designed British tanks proved decisive at the Battle of Cambrai in November 1917. Before the end of World War I, German tanks—some of them restored versions of captured British tanks—also took to the battlefield. The tank would come to dominate 20th-century warfare, particularly during World War II when Nazi Panzer divisions used them to devastating effect on Blitzkrieg attacks across Europe.


100 Years of Oreos: 9 Things You Didn’t Know About the Iconic Cookie

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The world’s best-selling cookies are celebrating their 100th birthday. On March 6, 1912, the National Biscuit Company (also known as Nabisco) sold its first Oreo sandwich cookies to a Hoboken grocer. Billions of dollars and many obscure varieties later, today Oreos remain an iconic snack-time staple. We twist them, we dunk them, we love them. But just how much do we know about them?

The name is a mystery. No one can confirm the true origin of the word “Oreo.” Some believe it was derived from the French word for gold, “or,” because its original packaging was mostly gold. Others have offered the hypothesis that it comes from the Greek word for mountain, perhaps because the test version of the cookie had a hill-like shape.

71% to 29% is the cookie-to-creme ratio of an original Oreo cookie.

The Oreo became kosher in 1998. All Oreo packing now bears a symbol, just above the package weight, verifying it as a kosher food. Hydrox cookies had long been a common kosher alternative, but, because not-as-tasty sort-of Oreos weren’t super lucrative, they were discontinued in 2003.

381. That’s the approximate number of times all the Oreos ever manufactured could circle the Earth if lined up end to end along the equator. Stacked, they could reach the moon and back more than five times.

The original recipe called for pork fat. (Hence the kosher problems.) That’s right, lard was once a key ingredient in that delicious creme filling.

Two versions debuted in 1912. The options were original and lemon meringue. The original was far more popular, and Nabisco discontinued lemon meringue in the 1920s.

They’re sold in more than 100 countries. In terms of sales, the top five are the U.S., China, Venezuela, Canada and Indonesia. In some countries, like China, Nabisco’s parent company, Kraft, reformulated the recipe to appeal to consumers.

Limited-edition birthday cake Oreos were released to celebrate the centennial. The cookies feature cake-flavored filling and sprinkles. Other varieties over the years have included “triple double” Oreos, green tea Oreos, blueberry ice cream Oreos, dulce de leche Oreos, and organic Oreos.

450 billion. That’s how many Oreo cookies have been sold worldwide since they hit the market in 1912.


History Behind The Chicago Flag As Turns It Turns 100

CHICAGO (CBS) — It’s one of the most recognizable city flags in America.

Tuesday marks the 100th Birthday of the Chicago flag.

What is it about the stars and stripes that makes the Chicago flag so popular? CBS 2’s Roseanne Tellez talked with some flag waving Chicagoans to find out.

“For a city flag it is truly unique and really beautiful,” said Russell Lewis, Chicago History Museum.

A flag so popular, a woman plans to wave it, as a tattoo on her wrist, forever.

“100 years to celebrate the Chicago flag and here I am. My husband doesn’t know I’m here. He’ll find out a dinner,” said Katie Carillo Majewski.

A tattoo artist said he does at least two Chicago flags, of every size, each week.

“It’s a very tattoo-able design,” said Dave McNair, tattoo artist. “It looks good as a tattoo.”

There’s meaning behind everything on the flag.

“The colors, the positions, the point on the star means something too,” Lewis said.

The stars represent the Chicago fire, both world expositions, and fort Dearborn. The white stripes represent the north, west and south side of the city the blue, our lake, river and canal.

The Chicago History Museum will celebrate the anniversary by unveiling rare artifacts, but many of us will display our pride on everything from onsies, to shot glasses. Cheers to 100 years.

“If you were from the city you have lived through sports, weather, neighborhoods – represent food,” Carillo Majewski said. “And the flag represents all of that.”

While the flags designer Wallace Rice didn’t want it used commercially, Russell Louis at the history museum thinks he’d probably get a kick out of its huge popularity.

There has been talk of a fifth star – had Chicago won the Olympics for example or in honor of President Obama or for the Special Olympics. Those ideas haven’t galvanized people just yet, but there could be more stars coming.


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“Never before in the advertising have we showcased the need” for Oreo in a “problem/solution” format, said Jill Applebaum, senior vice president and group creative director on the Oreo account at the New York office of Draftfcb, part of the Interpublic Group of Companies.

“The kids come in,” she added, “and there’s that moment of childhood delight.”

There will also be print advertisements that riff on popular culture milestones from the last 10 decades. The playful subjects include the invention of the yoyo, the arrival of 3-D movies and the introduction of Pac-Man. The ads call 2012 the year that “Oreos turn 100 years young” and direct readers to “celebrate the kid inside at oreo.com/birthday.”

On the Facebook fan page, fans are getting shout-outs for a birthday of the day, and there will be more than 100 events, styled like birthday parties, to be held in almost two dozen countries at sites that will include Oreo bakeries.

Oreo moments began to be featured in ads more than two decades ago, said John Campbell, worldwide account director on the Kraft Foods account at Draftfcb, as “more moms entered the work force, people got more busy and more of the carefree moments of childhood were being lost.”

“The ‘twist, lick and dunk’ ritual was a wonderful way to respond to that by slowing people down to enjoy cookies and milk, what they grew up with,” he added. Given what the lives of adults are like now, the idea of Oreo moments “becomes more and more relevant now, with every passing day,” Mr. Campbell said. “The time was right to amp that up and play it even harder than we’ve been.”

The anniversary looks ahead in another manner, as Oreo will be a cornerstone brand of a new firm to be formed later this year when Kraft Foods divides into two companies. One, a worldwide snacks firm with annual revenue estimated at $35 billion, will be home to brands like Oreo and Cadbury the other, a North American grocery products company, will have annual revenue estimated at $18 billion from brands like Maxwell House and Oscar Mayer.

Worldwide sales for Oreo rose to more than $2 billion last year, according to Kraft Foods, from $1 billion as recently as 2007.

Kraft Foods is observing an anniversary, the 75th, of another venerable brand, Kraft Macaroni and Cheese. A humorous commercial by Crispin Porter & Bogusky, part of MDC Partners, appeared during the Academy Awards broadcast on ABC on Sunday.

Some Kraft Foods brands are even older than Oreo, among them National Biscuit Company (Nabisco) cookies like Fig Newtons, introduced in 1892, and Barnum’s Animals, introduced in 1902.

The budget for the Oreo campaign is difficult to estimate because of its singularity. In the United States, Kraft Foods spent $54.1 million to advertise Oreo in 2010, the Kantar Media unit of WPP reported, compared with $36.8 million in 2009 and $56.9 million in 2008. Data is not available for full-year 2011.


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During Boston’s Big Dig construction project, she wondered why construction workers were not wearing respirators and hearing protection where it would have been advisable, even though nearly everyone on the $24 billion project wore a hard hat. Compliance was so high that even those not required to wear hard hats donned them. This prompted her and a colleague to research the social history of hard hats for a 2010 paper.

Dr. Rosenberg said hard hats had become associated with masculinity and patriotism. “There was a confluence of social factors that made hard hats cool that has not happened with hearing protection or respirators,” she said.

The term “hard hats” even became shorthand for working people with a conservative patriotism, and New York tabloid reporters still use the term to denote construction workers.

Bullard said it did not make gender-specific hard hats, but acknowledged that women were a fast-growing part of the construction industry. In 2016, 9 percent of construction workers in the United States were women, according to a report from the National Association of Women in Construction.

Over the years, hard hats have prevented injuries in a wide range of workplaces.

William Ross Aiken , an electrical engineer who became a pioneer in TV technology, recalled the close call he had while working in a shipyard during World War II. “I was saved by my hard hat once when some metal fell 60 feet from a gantry crane and hit me on the head,” he said in a 1996 oral history for the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. “It made a big dent in my aluminum hat, but it saved my life.”

Didier Bonner-Ganter , an arborist in Maine, does not remember being hit by a tree while working on a logging crew during his college years, but does remember standing in the forest with a sore shoulder, and his hard hat on the ground next to him, newly cracked. He does not know what would have happened to him if he had not been wearing a hard hat, but said, “It certainly would have been worse.”

Scott Storace was a project manager on a residential high-rise in San Francisco when a worker dropped a metal scaffolding coupler from six floors up.

“The hard hat did its trick,” he said. “It’s got that little bit of room between where it sits on your head and where the hard plastic is, and that cushioned the blow.”

Ms. Bullard, the company chief, said she heard a lot of stories like these.

She said her great-grandfather would still recognize the hard hats the company produced today.

“The technology of the hard hat really hasn’t changed so dramatically in 100 years,” she said. “There’s a suspension, and there’s a shell.”

But changes are coming. Ms. Bullard said her company’s products were evolving not only to protect workers from falling objects, but also to protect them when the workers were the falling objects.

Early next year, Bullard will introduce a new line of hard hats with foam padding and integrated chin straps, similar to climbing helmets, but designed for industrial workers, and with their input.

“Head protection reinvented,” Ms. Bullard said. “One hundred years ago, we invented it, and now we’re reinventing it.”

Falls are the No. 1 killer on construction sites, said G. Scott Earnest of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health . A 2016 report from the agency found that more than 2,200 construction workers died from traumatic brain injuries from 2003 to 2010.

Dr. Earnest said he believed redesigned hard hats could better protect falling workers.

“The next generation, the ones that are just starting to be seen on construction sites, are a lot more like a helmet a mountain climber might wear, or a hockey player, or a kid on a bicycle,” he said. “Anything we can do to provide better protection for construction workers is important, because it’s a very hazardous industry.”


Summary

The musical Mr. Ratburn’s class is staging for Elwood City's centennial turns into a drama of missed cues, inflated egos, and alien invasions — and all of that is going on behind the scenes.

In 1903, President Theodore Roosevelt officially declares the community of Elwood a city and unveils a statue of its founder Jacob Katzenellenbogen. Old Katzenellenbogan is angry because his name was misspelled, the statue is too fat, and the city’s name was supposed to be Elmwood. Henry Ford and J.P. Morgan are jealous, because Katzenellenbogan founded a city before they did, but they are sure that the city will not last a hundred years.

A hundred years later, Mr. Ratburn proudly announces that Lakewood has been chosen out of fifteen schools to stage a musical for the centennial celebration. He remembers doing Hamlet as a puppet show in college. The performance was ruined by the puppet's head falling off. He lets the third-graders draw lots to decide who will do what. Arthur is the singing narrator, Brain the writer, and Buster the director. Francine is annoyed to be chorus member, despite being a better singer than Arthur. Muffy offers to help with the publicity work.

Brain and Buster have an argument in the library, because Brain wants the musical to be historically accurate while Buster wants it to include aliens.

During the rehearsals, it becomes clear that Arthur is not a good singer. When he practices at home, even the Tibbles give up trying to sing worse. Francine offers to help, which Arthur accepts after first suspecting her of wanting to show off her better singing.

Preparations continue. Mrs. Morgan makes costumes. George builds a model of the set.

One week before the performance, the kids get into a big argument on stage. Mr. Ratburn imagines the performance failing like his Hamlet show, but Muffy gives a pep talk and the others pull themselves together. After the rehearsal, Arthur offers Francine to switch parts.

On the night of the performance, Francine and her dad pick up a flying saucer prop for the show with the garbage truck. When they have to stop for a duck, the prop is accidentally crushed.

When Francine does not show up, the others talk Arthur into playing the narrator. He opens the first musical number, “Jacob Katzenellenbogan”, which is about the founding of Elwood City. Francine calls to say that she is hitching a ride and the flying saucer is damaged.

The next number is Fern with a dirge to the green-tailed grebe. Meanwhile, Buster has locked himself in the janitor’s closet and Francine is hitching a ride in a very slow car.

The next number is about an alien sighting. Brain writes new dialogue, which replaces the flying saucer with a long-winded talk about natural explanations for the sighting. Buster steps in with a makeshift alien costume and sings a song about flossing your teeth. He accidentally pulls down the backdrop and Mr. Ratburn calls for an intermission.

The kids are about to give up, but Francine arrives and tells them that the audience likes the play. The kids look through the curtain and see that it is indeed so.

They do the last number about life in Elwood City today with Francine as the narrator. The show is a big success.


History of Tonga

Tonga was first inhabited about 3,000 years ago by Austronesian-speaking people of the Lapita culture, best known from their elaborately decorated pottery. From at least the 10th century ce Tonga was ruled by a line of sacred kings and queens, the Tu‘i Tonga. About 1470 the reigning Tu‘i Tonga transferred his temporal powers to his brother under the title of Tu‘i Ha‘a Takalaua. A similar transfer of power about 1600 resulted in the creation of a third line of monarchs, the Tu‘i Kanokupolu, who eventually became the rulers.

Although some islands were visited by the Dutch navigators Jakob Le Maire and Abel Janszoon Tasman in 1616 and 1643, respectively, effective European contact dates from Capt. James Cook’s visits between 1773 and 1777. Cook called the Tonga islands the Friendly Islands, because the native inhabitants provided him with necessary supplies and gave him a warm welcome. The London Missionary Society and a mission of Methodists made unsuccessful attempts to introduce Christianity to Tonga in 1797 and 1822, respectively. A renewed attempt by the Methodist mission in 1826 was successful, and a Roman Catholic mission was established by the Marists in 1842.

Between 1799 and 1852 Tonga went through a period of war and disorder. This was finally ended by Taufa‘ahau, who was converted to Christianity in 1831 by the Methodist missionaries. He became Tu‘i Kanokupolu and subsequently took the title King George Tupou I in 1845. During the king’s long reign (1845–93), Tonga became a unified and independent country with a modern constitution (1875), legal code, and administrative structure. With Taufa‘ahau as its most important convert, Christianity spread rapidly. In separate treaties, Germany (1876), Great Britain (1879), and the United States (1888) recognized Tonga’s independence.

George I was succeeded by his great-grandson George II, who died in 1918. During his reign the kingdom became a British protectorate (1900) to discourage German advances. Under the treaty with Great Britain (amended in 1905), Tonga agreed to conduct all foreign affairs through a British consul, who had veto power over Tonga’s foreign policy and finances. George II was followed by Queen Salote Tupou III, who ruled from 1918 to 1965. She was succeeded upon her death in 1965 by her son Prince Tupouto‘a Tungi, who had been Tonga’s prime minister since 1949. He ruled as King Taufa‘ahau Tupou IV.

In 1970 Tonga regained full control of domestic and foreign affairs and became a fully independent nation within the Commonwealth. A pro-democracy movement took shape in the late 20th century, and, from the 1990s, reform advocates won significant representation in the legislature. The government, however, resisted change. Pro-democracy leaders, including ‘Akilisi Pohiva, a member of the legislature, were occasionally arrested and imprisoned.

From 1983 to 1991, despite domestic and international objections, the government sold some 6,600 Tongan passports to foreign nationals. The revenue from the sale—purportedly some $30 million—was invested in a trust fund that in the late 1990s came under the control of an American businessman, Jesse Bogdanoff. However, by 2001 the fund had lost nearly its entire value to risky investments a Tongan lawsuit against Bogdanoff in U.S. courts was settled in 2004 for only a fraction of the loss.

As the reform movement gained momentum, some in the legislature and in the royal family were sympathetic. The government, however, responded by attempting to further solidify its authority. In 1999 the first indigenous broadcast television service, government-owned Television Tonga, was established. A newspaper critical of the government and the monarchy, Taimi ‘o Tonga, was banned at various times for allegedly being seditious. The legislature amended the constitution in 2003 to increase governmental control over the media, despite an earlier large-scale public demonstration in Nuku‘alofa against the changes the Supreme Court later invalidated the amendments. From July to September 2005, in the first national strike in the country’s history, thousands of public service workers struck successfully for greater pay equity.

The country’s first non-noble prime minister, Feleti (Fred) Sevele, was appointed in March 2006. In September, King Taufa‘ahau Tupou IV died and was succeeded by Crown Prince Tupouto‘a, who ruled as King George (Siaosi) Tupou V. Later that month a National Committee for Political Reform, whose formation had been approved by King Taufa‘ahau Tupou IV, made its report to the legislature. Its recommendations included reducing the size of the Fale Alea and increasing the number of seats for popularly elected representatives. The Fale Alea passed an amended version, which was to take effect within the next several years following the vote, a demonstration by pro-democracy protesters turned into a riot that went on for several weeks. Arson destroyed most of the capital’s business district and left seven people dead hundreds were arrested. Troops were called in from New Zealand and Australia to reestablish peace.

Following his accession to the throne, King George Tupou V began divesting himself of ownership in many of the state assets that constituted much of the wealth of the monarchy. That process was completed prior to his coronation in August 2008. At the same time, the king announced the cession of much of the monarchy’s absolute power henceforth, most of the monarch’s governmental decisions, except those relating to the judiciary, were to be made in consultation with the prime minister.

The pro-democracy movement made a strong showing in the November 2010 elections to the Fale Alea. The Democratic Party, led by Pohiva, won 12 of the 17 contested seats, although they were not enough to allow the party to form an outright majority. The other five elected seats were won by independents, who in December joined with the nine nobles to elect a noble, Tu‘ivakano, rather than a commoner, as prime minister.

On September 29, 2009, an undersea earthquake of magnitude 8.3 in the Pacific Ocean, centred some 120 miles (190 km) to the northeast of the island of Niuatoputapu, generated a tsunami that reached Tonga. Approximately 10 people were killed on the island, and a number of villages were destroyed.

King George Tupou V died in Hong Kong on March 18, 2012. He was succeeded by his brother, Crown Prince Tupouto‘a Lavaka, who ruled as Tupou VI. Following the Democratic Party’s victory in December 2014 elections, ‘ Akilisi Pohiva took office as prime minister in January 2015. Pohiva died in September 2019, however, and was replaced by Semisi Sika, who held the title of acting prime minister until later that month, when Pohiva Tu‘i‘onetoa was elected by the Fale Alea to fill the position.


What Makes Users Give Glowing Gravely Lawn Mower Reviews

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With such a long history in producing high-quality lawn mowers, it really shouldn’t be too surprising to find owners of Gravely products who are happy with their purchase. These products are considered as investments by many, so it would be easy to trust their positive feedback.


British Airways Turns 100 Years Old: An A To Z

Today marks British Airways’ 100th birthday. That is to say, 100 years ago today Air Transport and Travel flew the first regular international air service. The service flew between London and Paris. To celebrate this occasion, Simple Flying has created an A to Z guide to the world’s oldest airline.

A. Air Transport And Travel Limited

Air Transport And Travel Limited was the name of the airline which took its first flight 100 years ago today. Through a series of takeovers and mergers, the company went on to become what we now know as British Airways.

B. BOAC & BEA Merger

BOAC (the British Overseas Airways Corporation) and BEA (British European Airways) merged on the 1st of April 1974 to create the present-day British Airways.

C. Concorde

C is for Concorde, the supersonic icon of the skies. British Airways owned seven of the 20 Concordes that were built. One still stands at Heathrow in the British Airways livery today.

D. Do&Co

Do&Co is the current food supplier for British Airways. Their contract was announced in September 2018, and the supplier should be fully integrated into providing British Airways’ by March 2020 according to Head For Points.

E. Executive Club

E is for Executive Club. The Executive Club is British Airways’ frequent flyer program. It has four regularly attainable tiers. These are Blue, Bronze, Silver, and Gold.

F. Flag Carrier

F is for Flag Carrier. British Airways is the flag carrier of the United Kingdom.

G. Galleries Lounge

Galleries is the name of British Airway’s lounges. At Heathrow, there are Galleries Lounges in Terminals 3 and 5.

H. High Life

High Life is the name of British Airways’ in-flight magazine. It is produced once a month, and there are 12 covers to collect in August to celebrate the carrier’s centenary.

I. International Airlines Group

IAG is short for International Airlines Group. This is the airline holding group which owns British Airways.

J. Jet Fuel From Waste

British Airways is currently investing in a site in North East Lincolnshire where the carrier hopes to make sustainable jet fuel out of household waste.

8K was the seat Simple Flying was assigned on the inaugural British Airways Airbus A350 flight from London to Madrid.

L. London

L is for London, home of British Airways. BA’s main hub is at Heathrow, where their Waterside offices are based, however, the carrier also has a significant presence at London Gatwick airport.

M. Manchester

British Airways flies to a small number of destinations from Manchester, its hub away from London.

N. Negus

Earlier this year, British Airways painted a Boeing 747 in the old Negus livery alongside three other liveries. This was part of the carrier’s 100th-anniversary celebrations.

O. oneworld

20 years ago on the 1st of February 1999, British Airways was a founding member of the oneworld alliance. Earlier this year, oneworld airline CEOs met in London to celebrate the alliance’s 20th Birthday.

P. Painted Wingtips

British Airway’s new Airbus A350s are the only aircraft in the carrier’s fleet to have painted wingtips. The carrier’s South African franchise, Comair, also has painted wingtips on its Boeing 737 aircraft.

Q. Queen

Just under a year ago, British Airways baggage handlers performed Bohemian Rhapsody in Terminal 5 to pay homage to the band’s singer, Freddie Mercury.

R. Royal Mail

British Airways helps Royal Mail carry letters and packages across the world. This is recognized by the Royal Mail logo hiding on aircraft.

S. Suites

British Airways has revitalized its business class offering for the first time in 13 years. The carrier is beginning to roll out suites on its new Airbus A350 aircraft, and some older Boeing 777s.

T. Terminal 5

Terminal 5 is the Home of British Airways at London Heathrow. The carrier moved into the new terminal when it opened on 27th of March, 2008.

U. Uniform

British Airways is currently in the process of designing a new uniform in collaboration with the designer Ozwald Boateng.

V. VR Headsets

VR Headsets will be trialed on select flights to New York until the end of the year.

W. Waterside

Waterside is the name of the airline’s head office. It is located not too far from the airline’s London Heathrow Terminal 5 home.

X. XWBA

G-XWBA is the registration of BA’s first Airbus A350. The aircraft took its inaugural flight to Madrid 20 days ago and features the airline’s new business class suite.

Y. Yin-Yang Club World Seat

Yin-Yang is the name of British Airway’s current business class seating. At eight abreast, it is due to be completely replaced by the carrier’s new Club Suite cabin.

Z. Zulu

Last but by no means least, Z is for Zulu. This is the standard time that pilots around the world use in order to avoid getting confused between time zones.

What is your favorite memory of British Airways? Let us know in the comments!


This Artist Creates Captivating Animal Portraits From Seashells Found At The Beach (30 Pics) Interview With Artist

Anna Chan, who is a jeweler and designer, started sand sculpting creating beautiful, symmetrical mosaics and real-life animal portraits. Using just wet sand and found seashells, she's now ready to take the project even further.

Anna Chan, who is a jeweler and designer, started sand sculpting creating beautiful, symmetrical mosaics and real-life animal portraits. Using just wet sand and found seashells, she's now ready to take.


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Heritage’s authority rests on the quality, rigor, depth, and independent nature of our research and analysis. Heritage carefully protects this precious asset—its research independence and integrity—to ensure that our policy research is beholden to no outside party or interest.

Jobs at Heritage

Working at Heritage is more than a job it's a career and a cause. Join the Heritage team, and help us formulate and promote conservative public policies based on the principles of free enterprise, limited government, individual freedom, traditional American values, and a strong national defense.

Internships & The Academy

The Young Leaders Program handles the Heritage internship, campus outreach, young professional outreach, and the growing alumni network of the Heritage internship! Join college and graduate students from around the country as part of Washington, D.C.'s premier internship program. The Heritage Foundation Internship Program attracts young conservative leaders of the highest caliber. The Academy has been crafted to educate students, young professionals, and civic leaders on the foundational principles of American political thought and the important policy debates facing our country. This 12-week program is designed to increase your leadership capabilities and to help you engage more meaningfully in your communities and more confidently in policy debates.

Resource Bank

Heritage's Resource Bank Meeting convenes the best minds from think tanks across the country, activist and community leaders effecting change in the states, elected officials leading the way forward, new media voices bringing insight and clarity to the current debates, and rising young leaders who inspire. For more than 40 years, participants rave about the quality of leaders who attend, the incredible conversations that happen, and the dynamic topics that are explored.

Financial Information

The steadfast support of Heritage members, combined with our operational effectiveness, allow us to make great strides in policy impact and accomplish our goals while being good stewards of our members’ financial contributions.


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