Siege of Zeira, 349 BC

Siege of Zeira, 349 BC


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Siege of Zeira, 349 BC

The siege of Zeira (349 BC) came at the start of Philip II of Macedon's campaign against Olynthus and Chalcidice, and saw him capture and destroy the city.

Early in his reign Philip had formed an alliance with the Chalcidic League, and in 356 BC had even captured the city of Potidaea and handed it over to the League. Over the next few years his relationship with the league slowly worsened. Olynthus began to make overtures towards Athens, although didn't form an alliance, as that would have breached the terms of the alliance with Philip. In 351, on his way back from the siege of Heraeum, Philip marched through League territory, in an attempt to intimidate Olynthus. This effort failed, and may even have encouraged Olynthus to give refuge to Philip's half brothers Arrhidaeus and Menelaus.

War between Philip and the League began in 347 BC. He crossed the border, and attacked the fortress of Zereia or Zeira. This place is otherwise unknown and it probably didn't delay Philip for long. The fortress was besieged and destroyed. In the aftermath of this success other nearby towns surrendered to Philip in order to avoid sharing the same fate. It is possible that Zereia was in Pallene, as this area was raided by the second Athenian expedition sent to help Olynthus.

Philip was probably planning to attack Olynthus itself in the same year, but he was distracted by trouble in Thessaly. He had previously expelled the Tyrants of Pherae, but one of them, Peitholaus, appears to have regained control of the city. This forced Philip to leave Chalcidice to campaign in Thessaly, where he quickly expelled Peitholaus once again.

This was only a temporary reprieve for Olynthus, although it did make Philip's task harder. By the time he returned to besiege Olynthus in 348 BC the Athenians were ready to send help, but even their three expeditions were unable to save the city.


Ancient Rome

Ancient Rome was a civilization that started in the city of Rome and the land of Latium on the Italian Peninsula. Roman civilization was the most important civilization in the Mediterranean region, Europe, and the Near East from the late 3rd century BC. Roman civilization was in existence all through Classical Antiquity, Late Antiquity, and the Middle Ages, but "ancient Rome" means the ancient history of Roman civilization before the Middle Ages. Traditionally, the fall of the western Roman Empire during the 5th century AD is named the start of the Middle Ages in western Europe.

In Classical Antiquity, the Roman Empire controlled a very large area of land, which stretched from Great Britain to the Arabian Peninsula. Ancient Rome has been very important to the history of Europe, North Africa, and Western Asia, where the Romans controlled many lands. Ancient Rome's culture took many ideas from other civilizations, especially Ancient Greece and the Greek kingdoms of the Hellenistic period. Ancient Romans' ideas have been very influential for later civilizations. The Romans' Latin language became the most common language in the western Mediterranean and western Europe, and is the ancestor of Romance languages. The Roman emperors were responsible for making Christianity the Romans' state religion, and the Romans spread Christianity across the Roman Empire in Late Antiquity. Roman Christianity replaced Roman religion and other traditional religions. The Romans made many improvements to engineering, architecture, irrigation, and transport.


Early Life

Alcibiades (or Alkibiades) was born in Athens, Greece, about 450 BCE, the son of Cleinias, a member of the well-fortuned Alcmaeonidae family in Athens and his wife Deinomache. When his father died in battle, Alcibiades was brought up by the prominent statesman Pericles (494–429 BCE). He was a beautiful and gifted child but also belligerent and debauched, and he fell under the tutelage of Socrates (

469–399 BCE), who attempted to correct his shortcomings.

Socrates and Alcibiades fought together in the early battles of the Peloponnesian War between Athens and Sparta, at the battle of Potidaea (432 BCE), where Socrates saved his life, and at Delium (424 BCE), where he saved Socrates.


Tall, Tough, and… Naked?

Whatever their preconceptions, the Romans were shocked at the sight of the Gallic army. Here was no orderly phalanx confronting them, but a 30,000-strong mob of tall, big-boned, fair-skinned men. The Gauls had full mustaches and manes of long hair swept back over their brows. The bulk of their army consisted of light infantry with oval shields and long swords. Large numbers were completely naked, in accordance with religious and social customs, and wore torques, collars of gold, around their necks, as a sort of magical talisman. Others wore trousers, their upper bodies bare or clothed in tunics. Helmets were adorned with horns or crests of animal designs. A few of the chiefs and noble warriors had mail shirts and even the occasional piece of armor for their horses.

The Gauls also had a sizable cavalry contingent armed with spears. In pompous displays, nobles may have arrived at the battle site in chariots but then fought on foot or mounted steeds to lead the cavalry. The howls and wild cries of the Celts, accompanied by blaring of horns and trumpets, resounded over the battlefield as the barbarians worked themselves into a battle frenzy.

Facing the Gallic horde were upward of 15,000 Romans and allies from neighboring Latin cities. The basic Roman military unit was already the “Legio,” a levy “gathered from the clans,” of six thousand warriors blessed by Mars, the Roman god of war. Tactically it relied on the shock value of a phalanx of hoplites (heavy infantry). Reserves were few and there was little cavalry support. The hoplites were ideally armored with helmet, breastplate, and round shield and armed with a thrusting spear and sword. They were drawn from the citizens of Rome. Hoplite tactics were widespread throughout Greece and Etruria and were introduced from Etruria into Rome during the mid-sixth century BC.

Despite the superior numbers of the enemy, the Romans made no attempt to entrench their position. To prevent being outflanked by the Gauls, who had formed a broad front, the Romans greatly extended their wings. The extra men required for this were apparently taken from the Roman center, which was thus weakened. Even so there were insufficient men to make the Roman front equal to that of the Gauls. As a result the Gallic army not only extended beyond the wings of the Romans but, on average, was twice as deep and even more so opposite the Roman center. To the right of the Romans was a small eminence and here the Romans stationed their reserves. They were the weakest troops in the Roman force, probably poorly armed and inexperienced.

Brennus, the Gallic chieftain, suspected that behind the scanty numbers of the enemy lurked some Roman ruse. He feared that the Roman reserves on the hillock would outflank his left wing and strike at his army from the rear while his men were engaged with the legions. As a result Brennus opened the battle by attacking the reserves, with elite, possibly cavalry, detachments from his left wing.


Records of the National Park Service [NPS]

Established: In the Department of the Interior by an act of March 2, 1934 (48 Stat. 389).

Predecessor Agencies:

In the Department of the Interior:

  • Patent and Miscellaneous Division (1872-1907)
  • Miscellaneous Section, Office of the Chief Clerk (1907-14)
  • Office of General Superintendent and Landscape Engineer of National Parks (1914-15)
  • Office of Superintendent of National Parks (1915-16)
  • National Park Service (1916-33)
  • Office of National Parks, Buildings, and Reservations (1933-34)

Functions: Administers a system of national parks and similar reservations designated by statute, and national monuments and similar sites proclaimed by the President.

Finding Aids: Edward E. Hill, comp., Preliminary Inventory of the Records of the National Park Service, PI 166 (1966) supplement in National Archives microfiche edition of preliminary inventories.

Related Records: Record copies of publications of the National Park Service in RG 287, Publications of the U.S. Government.
Records of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, RG 22.
Records of the Office of the Secretary of the Interior, RG 48.
Records of the Bureau of Land Management, RG 49.
Records of the Forest Service, RG 95.

79.2 Records of Predecessors of the National Park Service
1872-1937

History: Department of the Interior responsibilities for national parks, beginning with Yellowstone National Park, established by an act of March 1, 1872 (17 Stat. 32), were initially under the immediate supervision of the Secretary of the Interior, exercised through the Patents and Miscellaneous Division. In 1907 the functions were transferred to the Miscellaneous Section of the Office of the Chief Clerk. Position of General Superintendent and Landscape Engineer of National Parks, headquartered in San Francisco, CA, filled by appointment of Mark Daniels on June 4, 1914. Replaced by Robert B. Marshall, with office transferred to Washington, DC, as Superintendent of National Parks, December 10, 1915. NPS originally established in the Department of the Interior by an act of August 25, 1916 (39 Stat. 535). Marshall resigned December 31, 1916. Funds provided for NPS operations in an appropriation act of April 17, 1917 (40 Stat. 20). Stephen T. Mather, Assistant to the Secretary of the Interior since January 1915, appointed first NPS Director, May 26, 1917. NPS redesignated Office of National Parks, Buildings, and Reservations by EO 6166, June 10, 1933, with functions expanded to include administration of areas formerly under the Forest Service and the War Department, and numerous sites in and near Washington, DC. Original name restored, 1934. See 79.1.

79.2.1 Records of the Office of the Secretary of the Interior

Textual Records: Letters received by the Office of the Secretary of the Interior, principally by the Patent and Miscellaneous Division, relating to national parks, 1872-1907, with registers and indexes, 1905-7. Records of the Office of the Chief Clerk, 1887-1916.

79.2.2 Records of the War Department

Textual Records: Correspondence, memorandums, reports, historical files, site files, and other records, 1892-1937, of War Department organizations (including the Offices of the Chief of Engineers and Quartermaster General), relating to military parks, cemeteries, monuments, and other areas transferred to the Office of National Parks, Buildings, and Reservations, effective August 10, 1933, under provisions of EO 6166, June 10, 1933.

Related Records: Records of the Gettysburg, Shiloh, and Vicksburg National Military Park Commissions, in RG 92, Records of the Office of the Quartermaster General.

Subject Access Terms: Gettysburg National Military Park Shiloh National Military Park Vicksburg National Military Park.

79.3 Headquarters Records of the National Park Service
1878, 1905-64

79.3.1 General records

Textual Records: Central files, 1907-39 (467 ft.). Central classified files, 1907-49 (1,162 ft.). Issuances, 1940-47. Organization charts, 1927-49. Records relating to the National Capital Park and Planning Commission, 1923-54. Financial records, 1915-32.

79.3.2 Records of NPS Directors

Textual Records: Records of Horace M. Albright, 1927-33. Records of Arno B. Cammerer, 1922-40. Records of Newton B. Drury, 1940- 51. Office files of Conrad L. Wirth, 1946-64.

79.3.3 Miscellaneous records

Textual Records: Records of Rocky Mountain and Yellowstone National Park Superintendent Roger W. Toll concerning his investigations of proposed park and monument areas, 1928-36. Mississippi River Parkway Survey inventory forms, 1949-51, and related records, 1916-58. Field notebooks of surveys, triangulations, and other computations in DC and vicinity by the Office of Public Buildings and Grounds, 1878, 1905-25 Office of Public Buildings and Public Parks of the National Capital, 1925- 33 and NPS, 1937-41. Records relating to the "Mission 66" Program, 1956-61. Miscellaneous administrative records, 1930-52.

Photographic Prints: Grand Canyon cableway survey, in albums, n.d.(202 images). See Also 79.18.

79.4 Records of Operating Units of the National Park Service
1866-1957 (bulk 1933-47)

79.4.1 Records of the Branch of Engineering

History: Engineering Division established as a field activity, with headquarters in Portland, OR, 1917. Relocated to Yosemite National Park, 1925. Transferred to San Francisco, CA, as a component of the newly established Field Headquarters (See 79.5), 1927. Redesignated Branch of Engineering, 1933. Effective with the establishment of NPS regions (See 79.6), 1937, field activities terminated and Branch of Engineering transferred to Washington, DC. Merged with Branch of Plans and Designs to form Branch of Development, 1946.

Textual Records: General records, 1917-26. Hetch Hetchy Valley, CA, reservoir project records, 1901-34. Reports on the water supply of San Francisco and vicinity, 1902-12. Road survey reports, 1925-39. Final construction reports, 1934-42.

79.4.2 Records of the Branch of Plans and Design

History: Established as Landscape Engineering Division, with headquarters in Yosemite National Park, 1918. Transferred to Los Angeles, CA, 1923. Redesignated Landscape Architecture Division, 1925. Previous name restored, 1926. Transferred to San Francisco, CA, as a component of the newly established Field Headquarters (See 79.5), 1927. Redesignated Landscape Architectural Division, 1931, and Landscape Architecture Division, 1933. Redesignated Branch of Plans and Design, 1933. Effective with establishment of NPS regions, 1937, field activities terminated and Branch of Plans and Design transferred to Washington, DC. Merged with Branch of Engineering to form Branch of Development, 1946.

Textual Records: Monthly narrative reports, 1936-38.

Maps: Master plans, 1931-41 (6,500 items). See Also 79.14.

Lantern Slides: Construction and engineering projects at national parks and historic sites, 1928-39 (EA, 40 images). See Also 79.18.

79.4.3 Records of the Branch of Forestry

History: Forestry functions initially vested in Educational Division, established on the campus of the University of California, Berkeley, CA, 1925. Redesignated Education and Forestry Division and made a component of the newly established Field Headquarters (See 79.5), 1927. Removed from Field Headquarters, 1931, and assigned, as Field Division of Education and Forestry, to Branch of Research and Education, which had been established in 1930. Redesignated Field Education Division, 1933. Forestry function separated from research and education and Branch of Forestry established, 1934. Redesignated Forestry Division, 1947. Assigned to Assistant Directorate for Operations, 1951. Directorate redesignated Operations Division, with forestry functions assigned to newly established Branch of Conservation and Protection, 1954.

Textual Records: Forest fire reports, 1928-49.

79.4.4 Records of the Wildlife Division

History: Privately funded Wild Life Survey established in Berkeley, CA, office of NPS, 1929, with federal government assuming full funding by 1933. Function transferred to Washington, DC, and vested in Wild Life Division, under Branch of Research and Education, 1934. Redesignated Wildlife Division, July 30, 1934. Duties and personnel of division transferred, December 1939, from NPS to Bureau of Biological Survey and Bureau of Fisheries, which merged on June 30, 1940, to form Fish and Wildlife Service (See RG 22).

Textual Records: Records of the Washington office, 1934-36. Records of Supervisor of Wild Life Resources and Supervisor of Fish Resources David H. Madsden, 1930-39.

79.4.5 Records of the Land and Recreational Planning Division

History: Established as the Branch of Lands, 1928, with responsibility for investigation of proposed park areas and acquisition of land. Redesignated Branch of Land Planning, 1930. Redesignated Branch of Planning upon transfer of acquisition functions to the Branch of Use, Law, and Regulation, the NPS legal staff, which was concurrently redesignated Branch of Lands and Use (See 79.4.6), 1932. Branch of Planning redesignated Branch of Lands, 1933. Made responsible for Emergency Conservation Work (ECW) in state and local parks, 1933. Redesignated Branch of Recreational Land Planning, 1934. Redesignated Branch of Planning and State Cooperation, 1935, and Branch of Recreational Planning and State Cooperation, 1936. Assumed from Branch of Forestry (See 79.4.3) responsibility for Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) work in NPS areas, 1936. Redesignated Branch of Recreation, Land Planning, and State Cooperation, 1938, Branch of Recreation and Land Planning, 1941, Branch of Land Planning, 1942, and Branch of Lands, 1943. Redesignated Lands Division, 1947. Became Land and Recreational Planning Division, 1948. Abolished with functions split between Land Planning Division and Recreational Planning Division, 1950.

Textual Records: State park file, 1933-47 (206 ft.). Project reports of CCC projects in local and state parks, 1933-37. Narrative reports on ECW projects in NPS areas, 1933-35. Records concerning water matters, 1936-49. Program files, 1934-47. Land purchase, 1934-36, land transfer, 1943-50, and other records, 1934-42, relating to Recreational Demonstration Areas. Classified files, 1936-37, monthly reports, 1936-41, and other records, 1935-42, of the Recreational Area Study. General records of the Development Division, including memorandums, 1936-42 and records relating to Civilian Public Service Camps, 1941-48. Records of the Project Applications Section, Development Division, including general records, 1935-43 inspection reports, 1934-39 records relating to active and abandoned CCC camps, 1934-44 and camp program memorandums, 1933-42. Records of the Work Control Section, Development Division, consisting of federal project records, 1934-43 and state and local project records, 1937-44. Records of the Progress Records and Cost Analyses Section, Development Division, consisting of ECW progress and cost reports, 1933-37 records concerning project progress and costs, 1934-42 and statistical information, 1935-41. Records of the Supervisor of Project Training, including general records, 1935- 42 job outlines, 1936-42 and records relating to the Project Training ("P.T.") Series publications, 1936-42. Index cards relating to state parks and recreation areas ("History Cards"), 1935-40. Land acquisition case files for the Chopawansic Recreation Demonstration Project, VA, 1925-49, and the Catoctin Recreation Demonstration Project, MD, 1925-49.

Maps: Published gasoline company and state government road maps, maintained by the Project Application Section, Development Division, 1933-38 (204 items). See Also 79.14.

Architectural Plans: Illustrations for published ECW portfolios of park structures showing typical cabins, shelters, furniture, outdoor fireplaces, and markers, 1933-38 (700 items). See Also 79.14.

Photographic Prints and Negatives: Supervisor of Project Training, activities, work products, and personnel, 1937- 41 (659 images). See Also 79.18.

79.4.6 Records of the Office of Chief Counsel

History: Legal function initially vested in individual designated as the Law Officer, 1927. Law Officer designated as Assistant to Director and head of Branch of Law, 1928. Branch of Law redesignated Branch of Use, Law, and Regulation, 1930. Redesignated Branch of Lands and Use upon transfer of land acquisition function from Branch of Lands (See 79.4.5), 1932. Further redesignated Branch of Land Acquisition and Regulation, 1936, but previous name restored, 1937. Redesignated Office of Chief Counsel, 1938, and Office of General Counsel, 1941. Redesignated Office of Chief Counsel, 1946. Redesignated Legal Division, 1948, and placed under an assistant directorate, 1949. Removed from assistant directorate and redesignated Office of Chief Counsel, 1951. Redesignated Office of Assistant Solicitor, 1954. Function transferred to Department of the Interior, 1955.

Land acquisition function vested in Lands Division, Branch of Lands and Use, 1932. Lands Division redesignated Land Acquisition Division, 1936. Previous designation restored, 1937. Redesignated Land Division, 1941, and Land Branch, 1948. When legal function centralized at the departmental level, 1955, land acquisition function remained in NPS. Assigned to Assistant Directorate for Operations, and vested in Branch of Lands.

Textual Records: Legislative file of the Office of Chief Counsel, 1932-50. Records of the Land Branch, consisting of deed files of selected national cemeteries, monuments, battlefields, and historic sites, 1866-1955.

79.4.7 Records of the History Branch

History: NPS historical functions initially vested in newly established Branch of Research and Education, 1930. Subordinate Division of History established, 1931. Redesignated Historical Division, 1934. Elevated to branch status as Branch of Historic Sites and Buildings, 1935, to administer NPS responsibilities under Historic Sites Act (49 Stat. 666), August 21, 1935. Redesignated Branch of Historic Sites, 1938, and Branch of History, 1943. Redesignated History Division, 1948. Assigned to Assistant Directorate for Research and Interpretation, 1951. Redesignated Branch of History under redesignated Interpretation Division, 1954. Division of Interpretation merged with Assistant Directorate for Operations to form Assistant Directorate for Conservation, Interpretation, and Use, with concurrent consolidation of Branch of History and Branch of Archaeology to form History and Archaeology Division, 1961. Division split into Archaeology Studies Division and History Studies Division in newly established Assistant Directorate for Resource Studies, 1965. History Studies Division assigned, as History Division, to Office of Archaeology and Historic Preservation (OAHP) established, 1968, to administer NPS responsibilities under National Historic Preservation Act of 1966 (80 Stat. 915), October 15, 1966. OAHP split into Assistant Directorate for Archaeology and Historic Preservation and Assistant Directorate for Park Historic Preservation, with History Division assigned to latter, 1973. History Division transferred to newly established Cultural Resources Management Division, in newly established Assistant Directorate for Park Operations, and redesignated History Branch, 1976. Cultural Resources Management Division elevated to Assistant Directorate status, with History Branch redesignated History Division, 1978.

Textual Records: General records relating to the Alexander Hamilton Bicentennial Commission, 1954-57 the American Battle Monuments Commission, 1955 and the John Marshall Bicentennial Commission, 1955-57.

79.5 Records of the Field Headquarters in San Francisco
1925-36

History: Established informally in 1927 as a designation for NPS units in the San Francisco area. Coordinated the work of the Engineering Division, Landscape Engineering Division, Educational Division, and Forestry Division and of Public Health Service personnel on detail as the Sanitary Division. Headquarters of Educational and Forestry Divisions were in Berkeley, CA. Use of term "Field Headquarters" discontinued, 1935. Effective with establishment of NPS regions (See 79.6), field offices in San Francisco and Berkeley closed, with field divisions transferring to Washington, DC.

Textual Records: Classified files, 1925-36, including records of the Engineering Division, Portland, OR, and Landscape Engineering Division, Los Angeles, CA, 1925-27.

79.6 Records of Regional Offices
1797-1988

History: NPS regional offices modeled after those of the Civilian Conservation Corps were established by memorandum of NPS Director Arno B. Cammerer, August 7, 1937. Regional offices administered NPS areas within their jurisdictional boundaries. Some western states were split between two or more regions. Prior to 1962, NPS areas in Washington, DC, and nearby VA and MD were not part of the regional system.

1937-July 1955

Region Headquarters Jurisdiction
Region I Richmond, VA ME, VT, NH, MA, CT, RI, NY, DE, NJ, PA, OH, MD, VA, WV, KY, TN, NC, SC, MS, AL, GA, LA, FL
Region II* Omaha, NE CO (pt.), IL, IN, IA, KS, MI, MN, MO, MT (pt.), NE, ND, SD, UT (pt.), WI, WY
Region III* Santa Fe, NM** AR, AZ, CO (pt.), NM, NV (pt.), TX, OK, UT (pt.)
Region IV* San Francisco, CA CA, AK, HI, NV, ID, OR, WA, MT (pt.), UT (pt.)

*MT united under Region II, UT under Region III, ca. 1940-47. **Oklahoma City, OK, 1937-39, Santa Fe, NM, 1939-55.

July 1955-June 1962

Region Headquarters Jurisdiction
Region I Richmond, VA VA, WV, AR, KY, TN, NC, SC, MS, AL, GA, LA, FL
Region II Omaha, NE IA, KS, MO, MT, NE, ND, SD, CO (pt.), MN, WY, UT (pt.)
Region III Santa Fe, NM AZ, CO, NM, TX, OK, UT (pt.), NV (pt.)
Region IV San Francisco, CA AZ, CO, NM, TX, OK, UT, (pt.), NV (pt.)
Region V Philadelphia, PA ME, VT, NH, MA, CT, RI, NY, DE, NJ, PA, OH, MD, IL, MI, IN, WI
Region VI* Washington, DC DC, nearby VA and MD

*Established January 1962 from former National Capital Parks.

July 1962-November 1971

In July 1962, with no change in jurisdiction, regional designations were changed: Region I, Southeast Region Region II, Midwest Region Region III, Southwest Region Region IV, Western Region Region V, Northeast Region Region VI, National Capital Region.

National Capital Region became National Capital Parks, but with retained regional status, December 5, 1969.

In 1970, Pacific Northwest Region established, with headquarters in Seattle, WA, and jurisdiction over AK, ID, WA, OR, and CA (pt.).

On March 16, 1970, Harpers Ferry National Historical Park, WV, became a separate administrative unit, under Director, Harpers Ferry Center.

November 1971-December 1973

Region Headquarters Jurisdiction
Northeast Philadelphia, PA ME, VT, NH, MA, CT, RI, NY, DE, NJ, PA, OH, MD, WV, MN, IL, MI, IN, WI, VA (pt.)
Southeast Atlanta, GA* VA (pt.), KY, TN, NC, SC, MS, AL, GA, FL, PR
Midwest Omaha, NE CO, UT, AZ (pt.), IA, KS, MO, MT, NE, ND, SD, WY
Southwest Santa Fe, NM AR, NM, TX, OK, LA
Western San Francisco, CA CA (pt.), NV, AZ (pt.), HI
Pacific Northwest Seattle, WA AK, ID, OR, WA, CA (pt.)
Nat. Capital Parks Washington, DC DC, nearby MD and VA

*Richmond, VA, to January 9, 1972. Thereafter, Atlanta, GA.

December 1973-October 1976

Region Headquarters Jurisdiction
North Atlantic Boston, MA MA, VT, NH, ME, NY, NJ (pt.), CT, RI
Mid-Atlantic Philadelphia, PA PA, NJ (pt.), WV, DE, VA (pt.), MD
Southeast Atlanta, GA KY, TN, NC, SC, GA, MS, AL, FL, VA (pt.), VI, PR
Midwest Omaha, NE NE, KS, IA, MO, MN, WI, MI, IL, IN, OH
Rocky Mountain Denver, CO MT, WY, CO, ND, SD, UT, AZ (pt.)
Southwest* Santa Fe, NM NM, OK, TX, AR, LA
Western* San Francisco, CA AZ (pt.), CA (pt.), HI, NV
Pacific Northwest Seattle, WA CA (pt.), AK, ID, OR, WA
Nat. Capital Parks** Washington, DC DC, nearby MD and VA

*That part AZ under Western Region further split between Western and Southwest Regions, 1974.

**Harpers Ferry Historical Park, WV, assigned to National Capital Parks, March 16, 1974.

October 1976- National Capital Parks redesignated National Capital Region, October 21, 1976. CA united under Western Region, 1978.

Alaska Region established December 2, 1980, with headquarters in Anchorage, AK.

79.6.1 Records of Region I

Textual Records (in Philadelphia): Central classified files, 1936-52. General correspondence, 1938-56. Records concerning work in states, 1935-44 (179 ft.). Project and contract files, 1936- 42. Inspection reports, 1938-43. Monthly reports, 1936-41. Records of the regional engineer concerning dam construction, 1936-43. Records of the regional geologist, 1935-42. Records of the regional wildlife technician, 1936-42. Records of the regional supervisor of the recreation-area study, 1936-43. Records relating to recreational demonstration areas, 1934-41. Reading files of Assistant Regional Director Joseph H. Peterson, 1936. Records of regional historian Edward W. Small, 1935-43. Records relating to the Salem Maritime National Historic Site, 1937-44.

79.6.2 Records of Region II

Textual Records (in Kansas City): Central classified files relating to national parks and monuments, 1931-52. Records relating to recreation, land use, and state cooperation, 1932-53. Regional administration files, 1937-52. Administrative and program files, Office of the Director, Region II, 1952-64. Special reference files, 1932-62. Regulations, issuances, and instructions relating to ECW and CCC activities, 1933-43.

Maps (in Kansas City): Park development plans, including Glacier National Park, Grand Teton National Park, and Shadow Mountain National Recreation Area, removed from the administrative files of the Office of the Director, 1952-60 (100 items). See Also 79.14.

Photographs (in Kansas City): Accident scenes, road construction sites, snow slides, building damage, and special park events and celebrations, removed from the administrative files of the Office of the Director, 1952-60 (450 images). See Also 79.17.

79.6.3 Records of Region III (Southwest Region)

Textual Records (in Denver):Central classified files, 1935-61. Subject correspondence files, 1927-61. Correspondence and reports relating to Civilian Conservation Corps camps and other conservation work, 1933-43. Correspondence relating to emergency relief appropriation programs, 1936-42. Correspondence relating to national parks, monuments, and recreational areas, 1927-53. Correspondence relating to projects and proposed parks in Oklahoma, 1933-53. Correspondence relating to Civilian Conservation Corps, emergency conservative work, and Emergency Relief Administration projects in national parks, forests, monuments, and recreation areas, 1933-43. Correspondence relating to Civilian Conservation Corps, 1933-44. Correspondence relating to the liquidation of Civilian Conservation Corps, 1941-45. Correspondence and reports relating to operating budgets and appropriations, 1956-58. Correspondence and reports relating to land and water use matters, recreational areas, and archeological studies, 1953-61. Correspondence relating to public use, boards and cooperative programs, and park policies, 1924-63. Final construction completion reports, 1932-57.

Architectural and Engineering Plans (in Denver): Drawings of construction and maintenance projects on roads and highways in national parks, 1931-79 (7,300 items). See Also 79.14.

79.6.4 Records of Region IV (Western Region)

Textual Records (in San Francisco, except as noted): Central files, 1927-63 (516 ft.). Narrative reports received from other regional offices, 1949-53. Vegetation surveys, 1935-53. Records relating to recreation, land use, and state cooperation, 1932-44. Records of the Engineering Branch, including field notebooks, 1913-66 irrigation project files, 1935-53 and records relating to roads in national parks and monuments, 1927-40. Records of the Branch of Plans and Design, consisting of monthly narrative reports of resident landscape architects, 1927-40. Central files of the regional wildlife technician, 1929-41. Records of the regional naturalist, consisting of wildlife files, 1929-40 wildlife census summary cards, 1930-40 and monthly activity reports of park naturalists, 1935-53. Central files of the Regional Geologist, 1936-40. Records of the Western Museum Laboratories, consisting of central files, 1923-42 and (in Washington Area) correspondence, 1935-37, and press releases, 1940-41, relating to the work of photographer William Henry Jackson. Legal correspondence, 1954-61. Land correspondence, 1953-62. Administrative correspondence, 1954-62. Construction correspondence, 1958-63. Exhibits correspondence, 1956-62. Developmental and maintenance correspondence, 1960-62.

Photographs: CCC, National Youth Administration, Public Works Administration, and Work Projects Administration artists, draftsmen, and engineers preparing museum displays at the Western Museum Laboratories, 1934-41 (ML, 880 items). See Also 79.18.

79.6.5 Records of Region V and successor Northeast Region

Textual Records (in Philadelphia): General correspondence, 1938- 52. Correspondence concerning state cooperation, 1938-52. General correspondence, 1952-68. River basin records, 1951-63. Historian studies files, 1952-67. Water rights files, 1940-62. WASO (Washington Area Service Office) records, 1954-62. Water dockets, 1962. Area property records, 1954-63. Proposed area files-Cape Cod, 1953-61. Records of the Cape Cod National Seashore and the Minuteman National Park, 1957-73.

79.6.6 Records of the Pacific Northwest Region

Textual Records (in Seattle): Records of the Portland, OR, Field Office, consisting of plans and reports by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers for park development in the Columbia River Basin, 1945- 57. Subject files of the Port Angeles, WA, office, 1941-62. Federal surplus property case files, 1950-64. Subject files of the Columbia Cascades Cluster System Superintendent's Office, 1946-65.

79.6.7 Records of the National Capital Region

Textual Records: Records relating to repairs and alterations of the Executive Office Building, 1925-37. Registers of burials, n.d., and visitors, 1879-1903, at Battleground National Cemetery. Clippings relating to Washington, DC, 1934-37. Subject files, 1924-51. Public Buildings Service reports on White House renovation, 1949-50. Annual and quarterly reports, 1913-42.

Maps: National Capital Parks system numbered map and drawing file, including DC monument grounds, parks, city squares, triangles, circles, numbered reservations, roads, and walks Columbia and Roosevelt Islands in the Potomac River the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal Parkway Arlington National Cemetery, Manassas National Military Park, Fort Hunt, and Fort Belvoir, VA Antietam National Cemetery and Fort Washington, MD Harpers Ferry Historical Park, WV and Fort Jefferson Monument, FL, 1797-1958 (16,725 items). Master and progress plans for Washington, DC, 1936-37 (90 items). DC recreation system plan, 1930-41 (89 items). Rock Creek pollution studies, 1935 (66 items). See Also 79.14.

Architectural and Engineering Plans: National Capital Parks system numbered map and drawing file, including Executive Mansion (White House), Washington Monument, Thomas Jefferson Memorial, Lincoln Memorial, Potomac River bridges, George Washington Parkway, Rock Creek and Potomac Parkway, Kennedy Center, Anacosta Park, Ford's Theater, Antietam National Battlefield, Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, Wolf Trap Farm Park, Stanton Park, Rock Creek Park, Farragut Square, Theodore Roosevelt Island, Prince William Forest Park, miscellaneous reservations within the District of Columbia, Lady Bird Johnson Park, Clara Barton National Historic Site, National Mall, Harpers Ferry National Historic Park, Samuel Gompers Memorial Park, Catoctin Mountain Park, Franklin Delano Roosevelt Memorial/West Potomac Park, armories, statues, and monument and park structures in DC, MD, and VA, 1797-1988 (20,339 items). Alterations and additions to Executive Office Building, 1934 (216 items). Thomas Jefferson Memorial, n.d. (9 items). Arlington Memorial Bridge, 1923-42 (640 items). See Also 79.14.

Specific Restrictions: As specified by the NPS Director, access to maps and plans of the Executive Mansion (White House) and grounds, or to information derived from them, by any person, including NPS and other government employees, requires permission of the Associate Regional Director, White House Liaison, National Capital Region.

Aerial Photographs: Washington, DC, 1937 (61 items). See Also 79.14.

Photographs: ECW and CCC projects in the Washington, DC, area, 1934-37 (CCC, 237 images). See Also 79.18.

Lantern Slides: Views (some dating as early as 1815) of Washington, DC, 1921-36 (LS, 350 images), with index. See Also 79.18.

79.6.8 Records of the New York City Region

Textual Records (in New York): General subject files, 1929-65.

79.7 Records of National Parks
1905-70

79.7.1 Records of Acadia National Park, ME

History: Established as Sieur de Monts National Monument by Presidential Proclamation 1339, July 8, 1916. Redesignated Lafayette National Park by an act of February 26, 1919 (40 Stat. 1178). Redesignated Acadia National Park by an act of January 19, 1929 (45 Stat. 1083).

Textual Records (in Boston): ECW project reports, 1933-37. CCC camp files, 1933-42. Completed project case files, 1937-42. ECW and CCC monthly work progress reports, 1933-41. Superintendent's subject file, 1933-42.

79.7.2 Records of Big Bend National Park, TX

History: Established June 12, 1944, pursuant to authorizing act of June 20, 1935 (49 Stat. 393).

Textual Records (in Fort Worth): Central files, 1943-65.

79.7.3 Records of Canyonlands National Park, UT

History: Established by an act of September 12, 1964 (78 Stat. 934).

Textual Records (in Denver): Subject correspondence files, 1937-64.

79.7.4 Records of Carlsbad Caverns National Park, NM

History: Carlsbad Caverns National Monument established by Presidential Proclamation 1679, October 25, 1923. Redesignated Carlsbad Caverns National Park by an act of May 14, 1930 (46 Stat. 279).

Textual Records (in Denver): Central files, 1943-65. Subject correspondence files, 1936-61.

79.7.5 Records of Crater Lake National Park, OR

History: Established by an act of May 22, 1902 (32 Stat. 202).

Textual Records (in Seattle): General subject correspondence, 1905-59. Subject files, 1954-61.

79.7.6 Records of Denali National Park and Preserve, AK

History: Mount McKinley National Park established by an act of February 26, 1917 (39 Stat. 938). Adjacent Denali National Monument established by Presidential Proclamation 4616, December 1, 1978. National park and national monument consolidated to form Denali National Park and Preserve by the Alaska National Interest Land Conservation Act (94 Stat. 2382), December 2, 1980.

Motion Pictures: Mount McKinley and environs, ca. 1925 (1 reel). See Also 79.15.

79.7.7 Records of Grand Canyon National Park, AZ

History: Grand Canyon Forest Preserve established under jurisdiction of Forest Service, Department of Agriculture, by Presidential Proclamation 349, February 20, 1893. Portion of forest preserve set aside as Grand Canyon Game Preserve by Presidential Proclamation 694, November 28, 1906. Forest and game preserve incorporated into Grand Canyon National Monument, established under the Forest Service by Presidential Proclamation 794, January 11, 1908. National monument abolished and Grand Canyon National Park established by an act of February 26, 1919 (40 Stat. 1175), with NPS assuming administrative control from Forest Service, August 15, 1919. New Grand Canyon National Monument established west of park by Presidential Proclamation 2022, December 22, 1932. Separate Marble Canyon National Monument established by Presidential Proclamation 3889, January 20, 1969. Grand Canyon and Marble Canyon National Monuments abolished and Grand Canyon National Park expanded to include territory of former national monuments and portions of Lake Mead (See 79.9.3) and Glenn Canyon National Recreation Areas by the Grand Canyon National Park Expansion Act (88 Stat. 2089), January 3, 1975.

Textual Records (in Los Angeles, except as noted): Subject files, 1929-70. Subject correspondence files, 1920-60 (in Denver).

79.7.8 Records of Grand Teton National Park, WY

History: Established by an act of February 24, 1929 (45 Stat. 1314).

Textual Records (in Denver): General subject files, 1953-60. Subject correspondence files, 1929-57.

79.7.9 Records of Great Smoky Mountains National Park, NC and TN

History: Began as a national park within minimum boundaries by an act of May 22, 1926 (44 Stat. 616). Established as a complete park by an amended act of June 15, 1934 (48 Stat. 538).

Textual Records (in Atlanta): General administrative records, 1935-65.

79.7.10 Records of Hot Springs National Park, AR

History: Hot Springs Reservation established by an act of April 20, 1832 (4 Stat. 505). Dedicated to park use by an act of June 16, 1880 (21 Stat. 288). Redesignated Hot Springs National Park by an act of March 4, 1921 (41 Stat. 1407).

Textual Records (in Fort Worth): Central files, 1948-66.

79.7.11 Records of Isle Royal National Park, MI

History: Established April 3, 1940, pursuant to authorizing act of March 3, 1931 (46 Stat. 1514).

Textual Records (in Chicago): Correspondence and subject files, 1940-62.

79.7.12 Records of Petrified Forest National Park, AZ

History: Petrified Forest National Monument established by Presidential Proclamation 697, December 8, 1906. Petrified Forest National Park established, and national monument concurrently abolished, effective December 9, 1962, pursuant to the Petrified Forest National Park Act (72 Stat. 69), March 28, 1958.

Textual Records (in Los Angeles): Subject files, 1962-68.

79.7.13 Records of Rocky Mountain National Park, CO

History: Established by an act of January 26, 1915 (38 Stat. 798).

Textual Records (in Denver): Subject correspondence files, 1927-58.

79.7.14 Records of Theodore Roosevelt National Park, ND

History: Established as Theodore Roosevelt National Wildlife Refuge in the Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS), Department of the Interior, by order of the Secretary of the Interior, February 25, 1946, as approved by President Harry S. Truman, February 26, 1946, from land administered by the NPS since 1934 as the Roosevelt Recreational Demonstration Area. Land transferred to FWS, April 1, 1946. Theodore Roosevelt National Memorial Park established from the south unit of the wildlife refuge by an act of April 25, 1947 (61 Stat. 52), with formal control of south unit passing to NPS on August 10, 1947. North unit of wildlife refuge absorbed by park pursuant to an act of June 12, 1948 (62 Stat. 384). Redesignated Theodore Roosevelt National Park by the National Parks and Recreation Act of 1978 (95 Stat. 3521), November 10, 1978.

Textual Records (in Kansas City): Superintendents' classified files, 1947-53. Records of the superintendent, 1952-65.

Related Records: For records of the wildlife refuge, See RG 22, Records of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

79.7.15 Records of Wind Cave National Park, SD

History: Established by an act of January 9, 1903 (32 Stat. 765).

Textual Records (in Kansas City): Records of the superintendent, 1952-63.

79.7.16 Records of Yellowstone National Park, WY (chiefly)-ID-MT

History: Established by an act of March 1, 1872 (17 Stat. 350). Administered by the U.S. Army, 1886-1916, when administration passed to NPS.

Textual Records (in Yellowstone National Park): Records documenting administration and operations, 1886-1984 (700 ft.), and including cartographic items and approximately 40,000 photographic negatives. Records relating to the fire (May 24-September 11, 1988, North America's largest wildfire), 1988 (200 ft.).

Note: Address reference inquiries to Park Archives, P.O. Box 168, Yellowstone National Park, WY 82190.

79.7.17 Records of Yosemite National Park, CA

History: Established by an act of October 1, 1890 (26 Stat. 650).

Textual Records (in San Francisco): Records of the superintendent, 1910-53.

79.7.18 Records of Zion National Park, UT

History: Established as a national monument by an act of June 8, 1906 (34 Stat. 225). Became a national park by an act of November 19, 1919 (41 Stat. 356).

Textual Records (in Denver): Subject correspondence files, 1950-63.

79.8 Records of National Monuments
1933-73

History: President authorized to proclaim national monuments by the Antiquities Act (34 Stat. 225), June 8, 1906.

79.8.1 Records of Aztec Ruins National Monument, NM

History: Established as Aztec Ruin National Monument by Presidential Proclamation 1650, January 24, 1923. Enlarged and redesignated as Aztec Ruins National Monument by Presidential Proclamation 1840, July 2, 1928.

Textual Records (in Denver): Subject correspondence files, 1950-60.

79.8.2 Records of Records of Black Canyon of the Gunnison National Monument, CO

History: Established by Presidential Proclamation 2033, March 2, 1933.

Textual Records (in Denver): Correspondence relating to development and land use matters, 1936-61.

79.8.3 Records of Colorado National Monument, CO

History: Established by Presidential Proclamation 1126, May 24, 1911.

Textual Records (in Denver): Subject correspondence files, 1949-65.

79.8.4 Records of Death Valley National Monument, CA

History: Established by Presidential Proclamation 2028, February 11, 1933.

Textual Records (in Los Angeles): Subject files, 1954-66.

79.8.5 Records of Joshua Tree National Monument, CA

History: Established by Presidential Proclamation 2193, August 10, 1936.

Textual Records (in Los Angeles): Subject files, 1951-73.

79.8.6 Records of Navajo National Monument, AZ

History: Established within Navajo Indian reservation by Presidential Proclamation 878, March 20, 1909.

Textual Records (in Denver): Subject correspondence files, 1941-67.

79.8.7 Records of Oregon Caves National Monument, OR

History: Established under the jurisdiction of the Forest Service, Department of Agriculture, by Presidential Proclamation 876, July 12, 1909. Transferred to Office of National Parks, Buildings, and Reservations, effective August 10, 1933, under provisions of EO 6166, June 10, 1933.

Textual Records (in Seattle): General subject correspondence, 1934-53.

79.8.8 Records of the Pipestone National Monument, MN

History: Established by an act of August 25, 1947 (50 Stat. 804).

Textual Records (in Kansas City): Administrative and program records of the Superintendent, 1957-65.

79.8.9 Records of Saguaro National Monument, AZ

History: Established by Presidential Proclamation 2032, March 1, 1933. Enlarged by Presidential Proclamation 3439, to include land transferred from Tucson Mt. Park, November 15, 1961. Became a national park by an act of October 14, 1994 (108 Stat. 3467).

Textual Records (in Denver): Subject correspondence files, 1953-63.

79.8.10 Records of Salinas National Monument, NM

History: Established as Gran Quivira National Monument by Presidential Proclamation 882, November 1, 1909. Expanded and redesignated Salinas National Monument by an act of December 19, 1980 (94 Stat. 3231).

Textual Records (in Denver): Central files, 1942-70.

79.8.11 Records of Scotts Bluff National Monument, NE

History: Established by Presidential Proclamation 1547, December 2, 1919.

Textual Records (in Kansas City): Administrative subject files, 1933-69. Daily log books, 1938-44. Visitor registers, 1936-40. Project cost ledger, 1937-40.

Photographs (in Kansas City): Photographs of development and construction of the Monument, including pictures depicting the history of the "Old West," the Oregon Trial, frontier personalities (including Indian chiefs), special events and observance at the Monument, and CCC activities, ca. 1933-69 (3,087 images). See Also 79.18.

79.8.12 Records of Statue of Liberty National Monument, NY

History: Established by Presidential Proclamation 1713, October 15, 1924. Enlarged by Presidential Proclamation 2250, September 7, 1937. Further enlarged by addition of Ellis Island by Presidential Proclamation 3656, May 11, 1965.

Textual Records (in New York): General subject files, 1936-64.

79.8.13 Records of Timpanogos Cave National Monument, UT

History: Established within Wasatch National Forest by Presidential Proclamation 1640, October 14, 1922.

Textual Records (in Denver): Subject correspondence files, 1936-60.

79.8.14 Records of Tonto National Monument, NM

History: Established under the jurisdiction of the Forest Service, Department of Agriculture, by Presidential Proclamation 787, December 19, 1907. Transferred to Office of National Parks, Buildings, and Reservations, effective August 10, 1933, under provisions of EO 6166, June 10, 1933.

Textual Records (in Los Angeles): Subject files, 1935-61.

79.8.15 Records of Tuzigoot National Monument, AZ

History: Established by Presidential Proclamation 2344, July 25, 1939.

Textual Records (in Denver): Subject correspondence files, 1941-60.

79.8.16 Records of White Sands National Monument, NM

History: Established by Presidential Proclamation 2025, January 18, 1933.

Textual Records (in Denver): Subject correspondence files, 1933-55.

79.9 Records of National Recreation Areas
1903-73

79.9.1 Records of Amistad National Recreation Area, TX

History: Established and administered under cooperative agreement between NPS and the United States Section, International Boundary and Water Commission, United States and Mexico, November 11, 1965.

Textual Records (in Fort Worth): Central files, 1965-72.

79.9.2 Records of Chickasaw National Recreation Area, OK

History: Sulphur Springs Reservation established by an act of July 1, 1902 (32 Stat. 655). Redesignated Platt National Park by a joint resolution of June 29, 1906 (34 Stat. 837). Redesignated Chickasaw National Recreation Area by an act of March 17, 1976 (90 Stat. 235).

Textual Records (in Fort Worth): Central files, 1903-69.

79.9.3 Records of Lake Mead National Recreation Area, AZ-NV

History: Established as Boulder Dam National Recreation Area, under joint use agreements between NPS and Bureau of Reclamation, Department of the Interior, October 13, 1936, and July 18, 1947. Redesignated Lake Mead National Recreation Area, August 11, 1947. Formally established in law by an act of October 8, 1964 (78 Stat. 1039).

Textual Records (in Los Angeles): Subject files, 1936-73.

79.9.4 Records of Lake Texoma Recreation Area, OK/TX

Textual Records (in Denver): Subject correspondence files, 1941-51.

79.9.5 Records of Millerton Lake National Recreation Area, CA

History: Transferred to NPS from Bureau of Reclamation under provisions of an interbureau memorandum of agreement, May 22, 1945. Placed under supervision of Shasta Lake Office, December 26, 1946. Region IV assumed direct supervision, February 26, 1947. Transferred to the State of California, June 30, 1958.

Textual Records (in San Francisco): Central files, 1946-58.

79.10 Records of National Military Battlefields, Parks, and
Cemeteries
1865-1953

79.10.1 Records of Petersburg, VA, National Battlefield

History: Established as Petersburg National Military Park, under jurisdiction of the War Department, by an act of July 3, 1926 (44 Stat. 822). Transferred to Office of National Parks, Buildings, and Reservations, effective August 10, 1933, under provisions of EO 6166, June 10, 1933. Redesignated Petersburg National Battlefield by an act of August 24, 1962 (76 Stat. 403).

Textual Records (in Philadelphia): General records, 1935-53. Correspondence between the Petersburg National Military Park Commission and the Fredericksburg and Spotsylvania County Battlefield Memorial Park Commissions, 1928-33.

79.10.2 Records of Shiloh National Military Park and Cemetery, TN

History: Shiloh National Cemetery established under War Department jurisdiction in accordance with General Order 33, Quartermaster General's Office, May 1, 1866, and the act authorizing national cemeteries (12 Stat. 596), July 17, 1862. Adjacent Shiloh National Military Park, also under War Department jurisdiction, established by an act of December 27, 1894 (28 Stat. 597). Cemetery and park transferred to Office of National Parks, Buildings, and Reservations, effective August 10, 1933, under provisions of EO 6166, June 10, 1933.

Textual Records (in Atlanta): Records of the cemetery, including list of quartermaster's correspondence, 1906-33 inventory ledger, 1869-75 records of disbursements, 1888-1938 records of funerals, 1897-1900 and visitors records, 1891-1929. Records of the military park, including correspondence of the park commission, 1895-1900, and of the park superintendent and commissioners, 1911-33 records of disbursements and expenditures, 1895-1933 time books, 1916-36 and miscellaneous financial, accounting, and supply records, 1914-33.

79.10.3 Records of Vicksburg National Military Park and Cemetery,
MS

History: Vicksburg National Cemetery established under War Department jurisdiction pursuant to letter, Bvt. Maj. Gen. and Assist. Quartermaster Gen. J.L. Donaldson to Capt. J.W. Scully, Assistant Quartermaster, Vicksburg, MS, October 10, 1866, in accordance with General Order 33, Quartermaster General's Office, May 1, 1866, and the act authorizing national cemeteries (12 Stat. 596), July 17, 1862. Adjacent Vicksburg National Military Park, also under War Department jurisdiction, established by an act of February 21, 1899 (30 Stat. 841). Cemetery and park transferred to Office of National Parks, Buildings, and Reservations, effective August 10, 1933, under provisions of EO 6166, June 10, 1933.

Textual Records: Records of the cemetery, consisting of letters sent, 1865- 1907 letters received, 1868-74, 1876-1906, 1910-13 cash account book, 1880-1905 and (in Atlanta) correspondence of the superintendent, 1879-1932, and circulars, 1913-16. Records (in Atlanta) of the military park, consisting of minutes of the park commission meeting of May 23, 1911 correspondence of the resident commissioner and park commission chairman, 1899-1927 correspondence of the park engineer, 1897-99, and of the park architect, 1935 index to correspondence, 1868-1916 visitor register, 1928-32 expense records, 1899-1931, and ledgers, 1934- 41, 1945-48 employee time books, 1933-38 bids and proposals, 1915-22 list of pre-Civil War cemetery headstones, n.d. and Public Works Administration construction reports, 1935.

79.10.4 Records of Yorktown National Cemetery, VA

History: Yorktown National Cemetery established July 13, 1866, under War Department jurisdiction in accordance with General Order 33, Quartermaster General's Office, May 1, 1866, and the act authorizing national cemeteries (12 Stat. 596), July 17, 1862. Transferred to Office of National Parks, Buildings, and Reservations, effective August 10, 1933, under provisions of EO 6166, June 10, 1933. Now administered as part of Colonial National Historical Park (See 79.11.3).

Textual Records (in Philadelphia): Letters sent, 1916-32, with index, 1922-29. Letters received, 1915-32, with index, 1922-29. Quarterly reports, 1917-25. Interment reports, 1910-29.

79.11 Records of Other National Park Administered Areas
1925-80

79.11.1 Records of the Andrew Johnson National Historical Site, Greenville, TN

History: Established as the Andrew Johnson National Monument by Presidential Proclamation 2554, April 27, 1942, pursuant to an act of August 29, 1935 (49 Stat. 958). Expanded and designated Andrew Johnson National Historical Site by an act of December 11, 1963 (77 Stat. 349).

Textual Records (in Atlanta): General administrative files, 1956-63.

79.11.2 Records of Cape Hatteras National Seashore, NC

Textual Records (in Atlanta): Correspondence files of the superintendent, 1945-60.

79.11.3 Records of Colonial National Historical Park, VA

History: Colonial National Monument established by Presidential Proclamation 1929, December 30, 1930. Redesignated Colonial National Historical Park by an act of June 5, 1936 (49 Stat.

Textual Records (in Philadelphia): Classified files, 1930-54. Subject files, 1932- 58.

79.11.4 Records of Coronado National Memorial, AZ

Textual Records (in Denver): Subject correspondence and memorandum files, 1952-61.

79.11.5 Records of Cumberland Gap Historical National Park, KY

Textual Records (in Atlanta): Miscellaneous administrative files, 1956-69.

79.11.6 Records of Hopewell Cultural National Historical Park (formerly Mound City Group National Monument), OH

Textual Records (in Chicago): Correspondence and subject files, 1946-64.

79.11.7 Records of Klondike Gold Rush National Historical Park,
WA and AK

History: Established by an act of June 30, 1976 (90 Stat. 717), with units in Seattle, WA, and Skagway, AK, southern and northern terminuses for prospectors bound for the Klondike in Canada's Yukon Territory during the gold rush of 1898.

Motion Pictures: Journey of A.K. Money and family by train and dogteam from Whitehorse to Francis Lake along the Yukon River in Alaska, March 1931 (1 reel). See Also 79.15.

79.11.8 Records of Morristown National Historical Park, NJ

History: Established by an act of March 2, 1933 (47 Stat. 1421).

Textual Records (in New York): General subject files, 1934-56.

79.11.9 Records of Natchez Trace National Parkway, MS-TN-AL

History: Initial survey for national parkway along the Natchez Trace authorized by an act of May 21, 1934 (48 Stat. 791). Parkway established under NPS by an act of May 18, 1938 (52 Stat. 407). Parkway expanded by absorption of Ackia Battlefield National Monument, MS, and Meriwether Lewis National Monument, TN, pursuant to an act of August 10, 1961 (75 Stat. 335).

Ackia Battlefield National Monument had been established October 25, 1938, pursuant to authorizing act of August 27, 1935 (49 Stat. 857). Meriwether Lewis National Monument had been established under the jurisdiction of the War Department by Presidential Proclamation 1730, February 6, 1925, and had transferred to Office of National Parks, Buildings, and Reservations, effective August 10, 1933, under provisions of EO 6166, June 10, 1933.

Textual Records (in Atlanta): Subject correspondence files, 1925-59. General administrative files, 1947-65.

79.11.10 Records of Wolf Trap Farm Park for the Performing Arts,
VA

History: Established by an act of October 15, 1966 (80 Stat. 950).

Textual Records: Technical information, produced by the Office of Design and Construction, Denver Service Center, relating to the construction and subsequent weatherproofing and repair of Filene Center I, including drawings and contract files, 1969-80.

Architectural Plans: Filene Center Amphitheater and other structures, 1968 (183 items). See Also 79.14.

79.12 Records of the Potomac Company and the Chesapeake and Ohio
Canal Company 1785-1938

79.12.1 Records of the Potomac Company

History: Chartered by the state legislatures of Virginia and Maryland in 1784 to improve navigation on the Potomac River by deepening river channel and cutting canals around falls. Organized in 1785 with George Washington as president. In financial difficulties after 1802. Attempted unsuccessfully to raise funds through a lottery, 1810-18. Property transferred to Chesapeake and Ohio Canal Company, 1828.

Textual Records: Proceedings of meetings of stockholders and company officers, 1785-1828. Letters sent, 1817-28. Letters received and reports, 1785-1828. Legal records, 1792-1828. Ledgers, "waste books," and other records relating to stock transfers, 1785-1828. Financial records, 1822-28. Records relating to the Potomac and Shenandoah Navigation Lottery, 1810- 19. Financial ledger for Georgetown ("Daybook"), 1800-7.

79.12.2 Records of the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal Company

History: Chartered by the United States, and the states of Maryland, Virginia, and Pennsylvania, 1824-26, to construct a canal from Washington to a point of navigation on the Ohio River or one of its tributaries. Subscription books opened, October 1827. Organized, June 1828. Construction began July 4, 1828, and ceased in 1850, with the canal completed to Cumberland, MD, approximately 184 miles west of Washington. Controlling interest held by state of Maryland by 1836. Went into receivership, 1890. Closed to barge traffic following flood, 1924. Purchased by the United States and assigned to the NPS, September 23, 1938, as part of the National Capital Parks system. Designated Chesapeake and Ohio Canal National Monument by Presidential Proclamation 3391, January 18, 1961. Redesignated Chesapeake and Ohio Canal National Historical Park by an act of January 8, 1971 (84 Stat. 1978).

Textual Records: Proceedings of stockholders' meetings, 1828-89, with index, 1828-83. Proceedings of meetings of the president and board of directors, 1828-90, with indexes. Subscription books, 1827-30. Lists of shareholders, 1829-37. Letters sent and received by the president and board of directors, 1828-89, with registers by the Commissioner of the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, 1835-42 and by the Chief Engineer, Assistant Engineer, and resident engineers, 1835-52. Letters sent by the receivership trustees, 1892-1938 by the treasurer, 1828-40, 1854-55 by the treasurer of the Chesapeake and Ohio Transportation Company, 1892-1904 and by the Canal Towage Company, 1903-18. Letters received by the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal Company and the Canal Towage Company, 1900-15. Legal records, 1828-1900. Deeds and other land title records, 1828-78. Field notebooks of surveyors and engineers, 1827-96. Bid schedules, 1836, 1841. Assessment books, 1828-33. Accounting records, 1828-41. Records of canal traffic, 1826-1923, consisting principally of registers of ascending and descending boats, 1873-77 records of tolls collected, 1845-92 records of boat registrations, 1851-74 and waybills and returns of waybills, 1872, 1878-87, 1893-1919. Cashbooks, ledgers, financial journals, registers of vouchers, and other financial records of the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal Company, 1828-90, and its receivers, 1890-1933 and of the Canal Towage Company, 1903-25. Debt certificates, 1848-77. Labor accounts, 1829-30. Payroll records, 1873-89, 1913-38. Accounts, 1828-1938. Miscellaneous legal records, 1916-26.

Maps: Washington, DC, 1791-1852 (3 items). Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, 1826-1937 (116 items). See Also 79.14.

Architectural and Engineering Plans: Drawings and calculations for Paw Paw tunnel, 1836 (65 items). Drawings and calculations for canal sections 222-237, 314-316, and 318-323, 1836-41 (330 items). Construction plans for power station, dam, and railroad crossing, Williamsport, MD, 1922 (3 items). See Also 79.14.

79.13 Records of Anniversary Commissions upon which the NPS
Director Served as Executive Officer
1935-73

79.13.1 Records of the United States Commission for the
Celebration of the Two Hundredth Anniversary of the Birth of John
Marshall

History: Established by joint resolution designating September 1955 as "John Marshall Bicentennial Month" (68 Stat. 702), August 13, 1954. Commission expired December 31, 1955, but Commission administrative assistant Edmund C. Gass continued to handle correspondence until 1957.

Textual Records: Correspondence and other records, 1955-57.

Photographic Prints: Portraits of John Marshall, his family, and Supreme Court justices views of Marshall's home and grave and of historic buildings and other subjects acquired by the Commission, 1955 (JM, 120 images). See Also 79.18.

79.13.2 Records of the Jamestown-Williamsburg-Yorktown
Celebration Commission

History: Established by joint resolution of August 13, 1953 (67 Stat. 576), to celebrate in 1957 the 350th anniversary of the founding of Jamestown, the "flowering" of Virginia culture at Williamsburg during and prior to the Revolution, and the Revolutionary War victory at Yorktown, October 19, 1781. Organized April 27, 1954. Final report submitted on December 30, 1958.

Textual Records (in Philadelphia): Correspondence and other records, 1954-58, and correspondence, 1958-60, relating to distribution of the final report.

79.13.3 Records of the Battle of New Orleans Sesquicentennial
Celebration Commission

History: Established by joint resolution of October 9, 1962 (76 Stat. 755), to commemorate the battle of January 8, 1815. Organized April 23, 1963. Final report submitted November 30, 1965. Washington, DC, office remained open until April 1966.

Textual Records: Correspondence and other records, 1963-66. Background files of Maj. Gen. Edward S. Bres (Ret.), Chairman of the Commission, 1956-63.

79.13.4 Records of the Jefferson Memorial Commission

History: Established by joint resolution of July 26, 1934 (48 Stat. 1244). Developed plans for, and oversaw the construction of, a memorial to Thomas Jefferson in Washington, DC. Submitted last annual report, 1939. Last meeting held October 20, 1943.

Textual Records: General correspondence, 1939-43. Minutes of meetings, 1935- 43.

79.13.5 Records of the Civil War Centennial Commission

History: Established by an act of September 7, 1957 (71 Stat. 626). Terminated pursuant to establishing act, May 1, 1966.

Textual Records: Minutes, agenda, and related correspondence of the Commission and its Executive Committee, 1957-65. General subject file, 1957-66. Reading file, 1958-66. Speeches, 1958-61. Issuances, 1962-65. Name file of commission and staff members, 1958-66. Microfilm of newspaper The Commercial Bulletin, (1861- 71), n.d. (1 roll). Press releases, 1958-64. Monthly newsletters, 1958-65. Chronology of planned observances, December 1960. Newspaper clippings, May-July 1963. Chronological list of Civil War battles, n.d.

Photographic Prints: Commission members, meetings and ceremonies, exhibits, battlefield reenactments, prominent people, and copies of artwork, 1957-66 (CWC, 500 images). See Also 79.18.

Filmstrips: "Immigrants in Hardee Hats--Wisconsin Fights the Civil War," n.d. "Indiana and the Civil War," n.d.. See Also 79.18.

79.13.6 Records of the National Parks Centennial Commission

History: Established by an act of July 10, 1970 (84 Stat. 427), with termination date specified as not later than December 31, 1973. Last meeting held December 7, 1973.

Textual Records: Minutes of meetings, 1971-73. Reports, 1971-73. General correspondence, 1971-73. General files, 1970-73. Objectives files, 1970-73. Financial records, 1970-73.

Sound Recordings: Commission meetings, July 15, 1971, and March 14, 1973 (2 items). See Also 79.16.

Photographic Prints: President Richard M. Nixon receiving the final report of the Commission, December 11, 1973 (1 image). Postage stamps commemorating the NPS centennial and Filene Center at the Wolf Trap Farm Park for the Performing Arts, n.d. (2 images). See Also 79.18.

79.13.7 Records of the Woodrow Wilson Centennial Celebration
Commission

History: Established by a joint resolution of August 30, 1954 (68 Stat. 964). Required by statute to submit a final report within one year of the 1956 centennial celebration, with termination effective upon submission of report. Formally terminated June 30, 1957.

Textual Records: General records, 1955-57.

79.14 Cartographic Records (General)
1896-1990

Maps: National Parks and Monuments, published, 1906-90 (536 items). Battlefields, National Military Parks, and campaign areas, published, 1896- 1933 (11 items). Locations of parks and recreational areas in the United States, 1933-49 (8 items). Road, route, and highway maps, 1919-44 (4 items). Yellowstone National Park and adjoining forest reserve, 1905 (1 item). Sequoia and General Grant National Parks and adjacent Sierra Forest Reserve, 1908 (1 item). Cooperative (NPS-state parks) conservation work, 1934-35 (2 items). Park, parkway, and recreational area study maps, 1936-39 (16 items). Potential recreational lands in Iowa, 1940 (1 item). Colorado River Basin Recreational Survey, 1943-46 (15 items).


See Maps Under 79.4.2, 79.4.5, 79.6.2, 79.6.7, and 79.12.2.
See Architectural and Engineering Plans Under 79.6.3, 79.6.7 and 79.12.2.
See Architectural Plans Under 79.4.5 and 79.11.10.
See Aerial Photographs Under 79.6.7.

79.15 Motion Pictures (General)
1930-42

Silent films on Shenandoah and Great Smoky Mountains National Parks, and Boy Scout Camp at Camp Roosevelt, Willow, MD, 1930-35 (12 reels). NPS sound documentaries on parks in GA, WA, and PA, 1933-37 (3 reels). Silent films produced by Harry J. Leik and Alfred D. Lindley during their 1932 expedition in the Mt. McKinley National Park, AK, ca. 1942 (3 reels).

79.16 Sound Recordings (General)
1932-88

Memorial services for NPS Director Stephen T. Mather, July 10, 1932 (2 items). Dedication of Mammoth Cave National Park, KY, September 16, 1946 (3 items). Speech by NPS Director Newton P. Drury, July 25, 1947 (3 items). Dedication of equestrian statues at Arlington Memorial Bridge, Washington, DC, September 26, 1951 (9 items). "Secrets of National Parks," a public service radio series documenting the historical and natural heritage of the National Park system, (1973-76) (109 reels). Oral history interviews of employees of the NPS and related agencies, Federal, state, or private, conducted by Mr. S. Herbert Evison as part of the Harpers Ferry Center Oral History Project, 1962-63 (99 reels, with typewritten transcripts.) Meetings of the Advisory Board, National Parks, Historic Sites, Buildings, and Monuments as it reviewed properties for possible designation as National Historic Landmarks, ca. 1977-88 (72 reels).

79.17 Video Recordings (General)
ca. 1988

Historical landmark videotapes, "In Celebration of Bayview: A National Historic Landmark," and "Magnolia Commons," ca. 1988 (2 items).

79.18 Still Pictures (General)
1859-1990

Photographs: NPS general photographic file of historic sites, national parks, recreation areas, battlefields, monuments, and parkways, and of NPS employees, consisting of the Charles Porter Collection, the Retired TV File, the T.J. Hileman Collection, the Frank J. Haynes Collection, the James E. Thompson Collection, the Stephen T. Mather Collection, the Freelance Photographers Collection, and the Miscellaneous Collection, 1880- 1962 (G, 11,905 images). John Wesley Powell and family, 1859-98 (JWP, 7 images). State recreational facilities in the United States, 1935-36 (SP, 3,200 images). Facilities in state and national parks, 1900-45 (HB, MI 143 images). Survey photographs of land adjacent to the Alaska Highway, by J. Diederich, 1943 (AH, 200 images). Daily activities of Presidents Franklin D. Roosevelt, Harry S. Truman, Dwight D. Eisenhower, John F. Kennedy, and Lyndon B. Johnson, by NPS White House Press Office photographer Abbie Rowe, 1941-67 (AR, XAR 33,000 images). Views of national parks, park visitors, Department of the Interior and NPS officials, military use of parks during World War II, and the Golden Gate International Exposition, 1934-57 (M, 244 images).

Photographic Prints: Albertype prints of areas of ID, MT, and WY, made from negatives taken by William H. Jackson during the Hayden Survey, 1871-72 (JAG, JAH 71 images). Federal buildings, monuments, and parks, in Washington, DC, 1900-18 (PB, 207 images). Zion and Bryce Canyon National Parks, by NPS photographers George Alexander Grant and H.E. Stork, in albums, 1929 (ZBC, 428 images). National parks, scenes, and Indians of the southwestern United States, by Ansel Adams, 1933-42 (AA-AAW 226 images). Louisa Bellinger Collection of albumen prints by Timothy O'Sullivan, William Bell, Carleton Watkins, and William Henry Jackson, during the Hayden Survey and other western surveys, depicting scenes in UT, NV, WY, CO, AZ, NM, and CA, 1866-80 (BC, 169 images). Surveys of Monument Valley area in AZ and UT, by Ansel Hall, 1933-34 (MV, 300 images). State recreational facilities at Mt. Baker, WA, in album, 1934 (MB, 26 images). Survey photographs by George Alexander Grant included in photographic report of the Committee to Investigate the Oregon Coastal Areas, 1938 (OC, 91 images).

Photomechanical Reproductions: Bison herds, 1870's (M, 6 images).

Photographic Prints, Negatives, Transparencies, and Lantern Slides: Henry G. Peabody Collection of scenic views of national parks and other natural areas cities harbors, beaches, and other topographical features historic sites and landmarks American Indians California missions and areas in Canada and Mexico, 1890-1937 (HPA, HPM, HPP, HPS, 3,467 images).

Photographic Negatives: National parks and monuments, 1908-45 (NP, 950 images).

Glass Negatives: W.H. Tipton collection of photographs of Gettysburg and other Civil War sites, 1868-1925 (T, TM 1,750 images). Artifacts associated with the American Revolution and exhibited by NPS at the Yorktown Sesquicentennial and George Washington Bicentennial Celebrations, 1930-32 (PGHN, 169 images). National parks, historic sites, monuments, NPS officials, American Indians, tourists, and wildlife, 1887-1932 (PGN, 385 images).

Posters: Advertising NPS administered areas, 1968-90 (P, 122 images).

See Photographs Under 79.6.2, 79.6.4, 79.6.7, and 79.8.11.
See Photographic Prints Under 79.3.3, 79.13.1, 79.13.5, and 79.13.6.
See Photographic Prints and Negatives Under 79.4.5.
See Lantern Slides Under 79.4.2 and 79.6.7.
See Filmstrips Under 79.13.5.

Finding Aids: Caption list and log book for series AR. Name indexes to series G (Mather Collection). Shelf lists to series T and TM.

Bibliographic note: Web version based on Guide to Federal Records in the National Archives of the United States. Compiled by Robert B. Matchette et al. Washington, DC: National Archives and Records Administration, 1995.
3 volumes, 2428 pages.

This Web version is updated from time to time to include records processed since 1995.


Contents

The history of Greece went through these stages: [6]

    (c.1600–c.1100 BC) was an early Greek culture during the Bronze Age, on the Greek mainland and on Crete.
  • The bronze age collapse or Greek dark ages (c.1100–c.750 BC).
  • The archaic period (c.750–c.500 BC). Artists made larger free-standing sculptures in stiff poses, with the dreamlike 'archaic smile'. The archaic period ends with the overthrow of the last tyrant of Athens in 510 BC.
  • The classical period (c.500–323 BC) had a style which was considered by later observers to be an outstanding example (i.e. 'classical')—for instance the Parthenon. Politically, the classical period was dominated by Athens and the Delian League during the 5th century. They were displaced by Spartanhegemony during the early 4th century BC. Finally there was the League of Corinth, which was led by Macedon.
  • The Hellenistic period (323–146 BC) is when Greek culture (Hellenistic art) and power expanded into the near and Middle East. This period begins with the death of Alexander and ends with the Roman conquest. . This is the period between the Roman victory at the Battle of Corinth in 146 BC and the establishment of Byzantium by Constantine as the capital of the Roman Empire in 330 AD.
  • The final phase of antiquity is the period of Christianization during the later 4th to early 6th centuries. It ended with the closure of the later version of Plato's Academy by Justinian I in 529 AD.

Literacy Edit

In the 8th century B.C., the Greeks learned how to read and write a second time. They had lost literacy at the end of the Mycenaean culture, as the Mediterranean world fell into the Dark Ages. The Greek Dark Ages (

1100 BC–750 BC), or Bronze Age collapse, is a period in the history of Ancient Greece and Anatolia from which there are no written records, and few archaeological remains.

The Greeks learned about the alphabet from another ancient people, the Phoenicians. They made some adjustments to it. In particular, the Greeks introduced regular letters for vowels, which was necessary for their language. Their alphabet was, in turn, copied by the Romans, and much of the world now uses the Roman alphabet.

Political structure Edit

Ancient Greece had one language and culture, but was not unified until 337 BC, when Macedonia defeated Athens and Thebes. That marked the end of the Classic period, and the start of the Hellenistic period. Even then, the conquered cities were merely joined to Philip II of Macedon's Corinthian League they were not occupied, and ruled themselves.

City states Edit

Ancient Greece consisted of several hundred more-or-less independent city states. This was different from other societies, which were tribal, or kingdoms ruling over relatively large territories.

Undoubtedly the geography of Greece—divided and sub-divided by hills, mountains and rivers—contributed to the nature of ancient Greece. On the one hand, the ancient Greeks had no doubt that they were 'one people' they had the same religion, same basic culture, and same language. Yet each city-state or "polis" was independent unification was something rarely discussed by the ancient Greeks. Even when, during the second Persian invasion of Greece, a group of city-states allied themselves to defend Greece, most poleis remained neutral, and after the Persian defeat, the allies quickly returned to infighting. [7]

The major features of the Ancient Greek political system were:

  1. Its fragmentary nature. There was not one country, but many little countries called "city-states".
  2. The focus on cities in tiny states.
  3. The colonies they set up round the Mediterranean were independent of the founding city. However, they were sympathetic to their 'mother city'.
  4. Conquest or direct rule by another city-state was quite rare.
  5. The cities grouped themselves into leagues, and members sometimes quit one league and joined another.

Later, in the Classical period, the leagues were fewer and larger, and dominated by one city (particularly Athens, Sparta and Thebes). Often cities would be compelled to join under threat of war (or as part of a peace treaty). After Philip II of Macedon 'conquered' the heartlands of ancient Greece, he did not attempt to annex the territory, or unify it into a new province. However, he did force most of the cities to join his own Corinthian League.

Kingdoms Edit

Some cities were democratic, some were aristocratic, and some were monarchies. Some had many revolutions in which one kind of government replaced another. One famous Greek kingdom is Macedon, which became briefly the largest empire the world had seen at the time by conquering the Persian empire (including ancient Egypt) and reaching into modern-day India. Other famous kingdoms are Epirus and Thessaly.

Monarchies in ancient Greece were not absolute because there was usually a council of older citizens (the senate, or in Macedonia the congress) who gave advice to the King. These men were not elected or chosen in a lottery like they were in the democratic city-states.

Citizens Edit

Citizens that could participate in government in Ancient Greece were usually men who were free-born in that city. Women, slaves and (usually) residents born elsewhere, did not have the right to vote. Details differed between cities. Athens is an example: The residents of Athens were of three groups: citizens, metics (resident aliens) and slaves. [8] Citizens were residents whose forebears had been Athenians for three generations. Male citizens had the rights of free men and could be chosen to fulfill any official state position. "Of the estimated 150,000 residents of the city state of Attica, only about one fifth held the privilege of citizenship". [9] Women who were citizens in Athens could not participate in political offices, but in Sparta they could.

Colonies Edit

The number of Greeks grew and soon they could not grow enough food for all the people. When this happened, a city would send people off to start a new city, known as a colony.

Because the terrain was rough, most travel was by sea. For this reason, many new cities were established along the coastline. First new cities were started in Anatolia (Asia Minor) and later along the Black Sea, in Cyprus, in southern Italy, in Sicily, and around what today is Benghazi in Libya. They even started a city, Naucratis, on the river Nile in Egypt. The cities of today, Syracuse, Naples, Marseille and Istanbul started as the Greek cities Syracusa, Neapolis, Massilia and Byzantium.

The big four Edit

By the 6th century BC some cities became much more important than the others. They were Corinth, Thebes, Sparta, and Athens.

The Spartans were very well disciplined soldiers. They defeated the people who lived near them and those people had to farm the land for the Spartans. These "helots" had to give the Spartans part of the food they grew and so the Spartans did not have to work. Instead, they learned how to be better soldiers. There were not many Spartans but there were many helots. Spartan military strength controlled the helots. The Spartans had two hereditary kings who led them in war. At home they were also ruled by a group of old men called the Gerousia (the senate).

Athens became a democracy in 510 BC. The men came to a place in the center of the city and decided what to do. It was the first place in the world where the people decided what their country should do. They would talk and then vote on what to do at the Boule (the parliament). But the women did not vote. Athens had slaves. These slaves were owned by their masters and could be sold to someone else. The Athenian slaves were less free than the Spartan helots. Every year, Athenian citizens elected eight generals who led them in war.

In 499 BC, the Greek cities in Anatolia rebelled. They did not want Persia to rule them anymore. Athens sent 20 ships to fight the Persians on the sea. The Greeks in Anatolia were defeated. The Persian King, Darius decided to punish Athens. He sent soldiers and ships to fight Athens.

Athens asked for help from Sparta. Sparta wanted to help but could not they had a religious festival at that time. Athens sent her soldiers against the Persian soldiers: at the Battle of Marathon (490 BC) they defeated the Persians. Then the help from Sparta came.

At the Battle of Thermopylae The Spartans were led by Leonidas, and resisted the huge Persian army. After a couple of days, a traitor called Ephialtes led the Persians around the pass behind the Greek army. Realising that defeat was inevitable, Leonidas released many of his men. Those who stayed knew it would be a fight to the death. Leonides kept elite hoplites (foot soldiers) who had living sons at home. [10] There were also allied Thespians and Thebans who volunteered to stay.

On the third day, Leonidas led his 300 Spartan hoplites and their allies against Xerxes and his mighty army. The Spartan-led forces fought this Persian force to their deaths in order to block the pass long enough to keep Xerxes and his army occupied while the rest of the Greek army escaped.

After Thermopylae many Greeks wanted to go south to the Peloponnese. Because the Isthmus of Corinth, the way into the Peloponnese, is very narrow, many wanted to fight the Persians there.

Athens was north of Corinth and she had a navy. Athens' leader Themistocles wanted to fight the Persians by the island of Salamis. Xerxes decided to send his fleet against the Greek fleet before the Greek ships could go to the Peloponnese. The Greek fleet defeated the Persians at the Battle of Salamis. Xerxes then went home with many of his soldiers but a Persian army stayed in Greece. This army was defeated at the Battle of Platea in 479 BC.

After the Persians were defeated at Platea, the Spartans did very little. However, Persia was still dangerous. Athens asked the Greek cities on the islands in the Aegean and in Anatolia to join her. The cities agreed because they were afraid of Persia. These cities formed the Delian League and Athens was their leader. Many of the cities of the Delian League had to pay Athens tribute money. Athens used the money to build many ships and the Parthenon. Sparta was still strong on land, but Athens was stronger on the sea. Several times there was war between Athens and Sparta. Then Athens decided to send many ships to Sicily to fight against the city Syracuse. Sparta sent help to Syracuse, and Athens was defeated. None of the Athenian ships came back.

Now Sparta wanted to build ships to fight Athens. It took a long time for Sparta to defeat Athens, but then at the Battle of Aegospotami the Spartans destroyed most of Athens's ships. The Athenians used an advanced type of ship called triremes. These ships had their combat systems, and were propelled by oarsmen. On the front of the Trireme was a large bronze battering ram. The oarsmen would row the trireme at an enemy boat, and ram a hole into its hull. This was the most effective way for the trireme to destroy other boats. The soldiers (hoplites) on the trireme would board the enemy ship and capture it. Nevertheless, the Athenian fleet of triremes was destroyed in a battle in 405 BC. Athens surrendered the following year and the war was over. [11]

Men, when not working, fighting or discussing politics, could (at festive times) go to Ancient Greek theatre to watch dramas, comedies or tragedies. These often involved politics and the gods of Greek mythology. Women were not allowed to perform in the theatre male actors played female roles.

Women did domestic work, such as spinning, weaving, cleaning and cooking. They were not involved in public life or politics. Women from rich families however, had slaves to carry out domestic work for them.

The famous Olympic games were held at Olympia every four years. They were for men only, and women were not allowed to attend, even as spectators. The sports included running, javelin throwing, discus throwing and wrestling. The Games were unusual, because the athletes could come from any Greek city.

Another competition, the Heraean Games, was held for women. It was also held at Olympus at a different time from the men's event. [12]

The rules for girls in Sparta were different from other cities. They were trained in the same events as boys, because Spartans believed that strong women would produce strong babies who would become future warriors. Their girl athletes were unmarried and competed nude or wearing short dresses. Boys were allowed to watch the athletes, in the hopes of creating marriages and offspring.

Later, in the Classical period, girls could compete in the same festivals as males. [13]


The Cambridge Companion to the Age of Augustus

This book has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.
  • Publisher: Cambridge University Press
  • Online publication date: March 2007
  • Print publication year: 2005
  • Online ISBN: 9781139000833
  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CCOL0521807964
  • Subjects: Ancient History, Literature, Classical Studies, Classical Studies (General), History, Regional History Before 1500
  • Collection: Cambridge Companions to Literature and Classics
  • Series: Cambridge Companions to the Ancient World

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this book to your organisation's collection.

Book description

The age of Augustus, commonly dated to 30 BC – AD 14, was a pivotal period in world history. A time of tremendous change in Rome, Italy, and throughout the Mediterranean world, many developments were underway when Augustus took charge and a recurring theme is the role that he played in shaping their direction. The Cambridge Companion to the Age of Augustus captures the dynamics and richness of this era by examining important aspects of political and social history, religion, literature, and art and architecture. The sixteen essays, written by distinguished specialists from the United States and Europe, explore the multi-faceted character of the period and the interconnections between social, religious, political, literary, and artistic developments. Introducing the reader to many of the central issues of the Age of Augustus, the essays also break new ground and will stimulate further research and discussion.

Reviews

'Galinsky's editing of the volume is to be largely commended. All the essays are clear and written in an engaging style.'

Source: Bryn Mawr Classical Review

'This book is thoroughly to be recommended. The articles are authoritative and scholarly, yet accessible and interesting … an excellent survey of the character of this important period of history.'

Source: Journal of Classics Teaching

'… a useful and stimulating tool for both experts and laymen with a genuine interest in this crucial period, especially since quality and accessibility go perfectly together in this generally well-edited book.'


The battle book : crucial conflicts in history from 1469 BC to the present

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Contents

The history of Greece went through these stages: [6]

    (c.1600–c.1100 BC) was an early Greek culture during the Bronze Age, on the Greek mainland and on Crete.
  • The bronze age collapse or Greek dark ages (c.1100–c.750 BC).
  • The archaic period (c.750–c.500 BC). Artists made larger free-standing sculptures in stiff poses, with the dreamlike 'archaic smile'. The archaic period ends with the overthrow of the last tyrant of Athens in 510 BC.
  • The classical period (c.500–323 BC) had a style which was considered by later observers to be an outstanding example (i.e. 'classical')—for instance the Parthenon. Politically, the classical period was dominated by Athens and the Delian League during the 5th century. They were displaced by Spartanhegemony during the early 4th century BC. Finally there was the League of Corinth, which was led by Macedon.
  • The Hellenistic period (323–146 BC) is when Greek culture (Hellenistic art) and power expanded into the near and Middle East. This period begins with the death of Alexander and ends with the Roman conquest. . This is the period between the Roman victory at the Battle of Corinth in 146 BC and the establishment of Byzantium by Constantine as the capital of the Roman Empire in 330 AD.
  • The final phase of antiquity is the period of Christianization during the later 4th to early 6th centuries. It ended with the closure of the later version of Plato's Academy by Justinian I in 529 AD.

Literacy Edit

In the 8th century B.C., the Greeks learned how to read and write a second time. They had lost literacy at the end of the Mycenaean culture, as the Mediterranean world fell into the Dark Ages. The Greek Dark Ages (

1100 BC–750 BC), or Bronze Age collapse, is a period in the history of Ancient Greece and Anatolia from which there are no written records, and few archaeological remains.

The Greeks learned about the alphabet from another ancient people, the Phoenicians. They made some adjustments to it. In particular, the Greeks introduced regular letters for vowels, which was necessary for their language. Their alphabet was, in turn, copied by the Romans, and much of the world now uses the Roman alphabet.

Political structure Edit

Ancient Greece had one language and culture, but was not unified until 337 BC, when Macedonia defeated Athens and Thebes. That marked the end of the Classic period, and the start of the Hellenistic period. Even then, the conquered cities were merely joined to Philip II of Macedon's Corinthian League they were not occupied, and ruled themselves.

City states Edit

Ancient Greece consisted of several hundred more-or-less independent city states. This was different from other societies, which were tribal, or kingdoms ruling over relatively large territories.

Undoubtedly the geography of Greece—divided and sub-divided by hills, mountains and rivers—contributed to the nature of ancient Greece. On the one hand, the ancient Greeks had no doubt that they were 'one people' they had the same religion, same basic culture, and same language. Yet each city-state or "polis" was independent unification was something rarely discussed by the ancient Greeks. Even when, during the second Persian invasion of Greece, a group of city-states allied themselves to defend Greece, most poleis remained neutral, and after the Persian defeat, the allies quickly returned to infighting. [7]

The major features of the Ancient Greek political system were:

  1. Its fragmentary nature. There was not one country, but many little countries called "city-states".
  2. The focus on cities in tiny states.
  3. The colonies they set up round the Mediterranean were independent of the founding city. However, they were sympathetic to their 'mother city'.
  4. Conquest or direct rule by another city-state was quite rare.
  5. The cities grouped themselves into leagues, and members sometimes quit one league and joined another.

Later, in the Classical period, the leagues were fewer and larger, and dominated by one city (particularly Athens, Sparta and Thebes). Often cities would be compelled to join under threat of war (or as part of a peace treaty). After Philip II of Macedon 'conquered' the heartlands of ancient Greece, he did not attempt to annex the territory, or unify it into a new province. However, he did force most of the cities to join his own Corinthian League.

Kingdoms Edit

Some cities were democratic, some were aristocratic, and some were monarchies. Some had many revolutions in which one kind of government replaced another. One famous Greek kingdom is Macedon, which became briefly the largest empire the world had seen at the time by conquering the Persian empire (including ancient Egypt) and reaching into modern-day India. Other famous kingdoms are Epirus and Thessaly.

Monarchies in ancient Greece were not absolute because there was usually a council of older citizens (the senate, or in Macedonia the congress) who gave advice to the King. These men were not elected or chosen in a lottery like they were in the democratic city-states.

Citizens Edit

Citizens that could participate in government in Ancient Greece were usually men who were free-born in that city. Women, slaves and (usually) residents born elsewhere, did not have the right to vote. Details differed between cities. Athens is an example: The residents of Athens were of three groups: citizens, metics (resident aliens) and slaves. [8] Citizens were residents whose forebears had been Athenians for three generations. Male citizens had the rights of free men and could be chosen to fulfill any official state position. "Of the estimated 150,000 residents of the city state of Attica, only about one fifth held the privilege of citizenship". [9] Women who were citizens in Athens could not participate in political offices, but in Sparta they could.

Colonies Edit

The number of Greeks grew and soon they could not grow enough food for all the people. When this happened, a city would send people off to start a new city, known as a colony.

Because the terrain was rough, most travel was by sea. For this reason, many new cities were established along the coastline. First new cities were started in Anatolia (Asia Minor) and later along the Black Sea, in Cyprus, in southern Italy, in Sicily, and around what today is Benghazi in Libya. They even started a city, Naucratis, on the river Nile in Egypt. The cities of today, Syracuse, Naples, Marseille and Istanbul started as the Greek cities Syracusa, Neapolis, Massilia and Byzantium.

The big four Edit

By the 6th century BC some cities became much more important than the others. They were Corinth, Thebes, Sparta, and Athens.

The Spartans were very well disciplined soldiers. They defeated the people who lived near them and those people had to farm the land for the Spartans. These "helots" had to give the Spartans part of the food they grew and so the Spartans did not have to work. Instead, they learned how to be better soldiers. There were not many Spartans but there were many helots. Spartan military strength controlled the helots. The Spartans had two hereditary kings who led them in war. At home they were also ruled by a group of old men called the Gerousia (the senate).

Athens became a democracy in 510 BC. The men came to a place in the center of the city and decided what to do. It was the first place in the world where the people decided what their country should do. They would talk and then vote on what to do at the Boule (the parliament). But the women did not vote. Athens had slaves. These slaves were owned by their masters and could be sold to someone else. The Athenian slaves were less free than the Spartan helots. Every year, Athenian citizens elected eight generals who led them in war.

In 499 BC, the Greek cities in Anatolia rebelled. They did not want Persia to rule them anymore. Athens sent 20 ships to fight the Persians on the sea. The Greeks in Anatolia were defeated. The Persian King, Darius decided to punish Athens. He sent soldiers and ships to fight Athens.

Athens asked for help from Sparta. Sparta wanted to help but could not they had a religious festival at that time. Athens sent her soldiers against the Persian soldiers: at the Battle of Marathon (490 BC) they defeated the Persians. Then the help from Sparta came.

At the Battle of Thermopylae The Spartans were led by Leonidas, and resisted the huge Persian army. After a couple of days, a traitor called Ephialtes led the Persians around the pass behind the Greek army. Realising that defeat was inevitable, Leonidas released many of his men. Those who stayed knew it would be a fight to the death. Leonides kept elite hoplites (foot soldiers) who had living sons at home. [10] There were also allied Thespians and Thebans who volunteered to stay.

On the third day, Leonidas led his 300 Spartan hoplites and their allies against Xerxes and his mighty army. The Spartan-led forces fought this Persian force to their deaths in order to block the pass long enough to keep Xerxes and his army occupied while the rest of the Greek army escaped.

After Thermopylae many Greeks wanted to go south to the Peloponnese. Because the Isthmus of Corinth, the way into the Peloponnese, is very narrow, many wanted to fight the Persians there.

Athens was north of Corinth and she had a navy. Athens' leader Themistocles wanted to fight the Persians by the island of Salamis. Xerxes decided to send his fleet against the Greek fleet before the Greek ships could go to the Peloponnese. The Greek fleet defeated the Persians at the Battle of Salamis. Xerxes then went home with many of his soldiers but a Persian army stayed in Greece. This army was defeated at the Battle of Platea in 479 BC.

After the Persians were defeated at Platea, the Spartans did very little. However, Persia was still dangerous. Athens asked the Greek cities on the islands in the Aegean and in Anatolia to join her. The cities agreed because they were afraid of Persia. These cities formed the Delian League and Athens was their leader. Many of the cities of the Delian League had to pay Athens tribute money. Athens used the money to build many ships and the Parthenon. Sparta was still strong on land, but Athens was stronger on the sea. Several times there was war between Athens and Sparta. Then Athens decided to send many ships to Sicily to fight against the city Syracuse. Sparta sent help to Syracuse, and Athens was defeated. None of the Athenian ships came back.

Now Sparta wanted to build ships to fight Athens. It took a long time for Sparta to defeat Athens, but then at the Battle of Aegospotami the Spartans destroyed most of Athens's ships. The Athenians used an advanced type of ship called triremes. These ships had their combat systems, and were propelled by oarsmen. On the front of the Trireme was a large bronze battering ram. The oarsmen would row the trireme at an enemy boat, and ram a hole into its hull. This was the most effective way for the trireme to destroy other boats. The soldiers (hoplites) on the trireme would board the enemy ship and capture it. Nevertheless, the Athenian fleet of triremes was destroyed in a battle in 405 BC. Athens surrendered the following year and the war was over. [11]

Men, when not working, fighting or discussing politics, could (at festive times) go to Ancient Greek theatre to watch dramas, comedies or tragedies. These often involved politics and the gods of Greek mythology. Women were not allowed to perform in the theatre male actors played female roles.

Women did domestic work, such as spinning, weaving, cleaning and cooking. They were not involved in public life or politics. Women from rich families however, had slaves to carry out domestic work for them.

The famous Olympic games were held at Olympia every four years. They were for men only, and women were not allowed to attend, even as spectators. The sports included running, javelin throwing, discus throwing and wrestling. The Games were unusual, because the athletes could come from any Greek city.

Another competition, the Heraean Games, was held for women. It was also held at Olympus at a different time from the men's event. [12]

The rules for girls in Sparta were different from other cities. They were trained in the same events as boys, because Spartans believed that strong women would produce strong babies who would become future warriors. Their girl athletes were unmarried and competed nude or wearing short dresses. Boys were allowed to watch the athletes, in the hopes of creating marriages and offspring.

Later, in the Classical period, girls could compete in the same festivals as males. [13]


Demosthenes of Athens and the Fall of Classical Greece

Ian Worthington is one of the leading experts on Athenian and Macedonian history of the fourth century BC. 1 Thus his new monograph on Demosthenes, the famous Athenian politician and orator, is a most welcome addition to the extensive scholarly literature on this subject. Throughout the book readers will find a rich documentation of the literary (especially rhetorical, historical and biographical) and epigraphic ancient evidence though Worthington is less interested in numismatic and archaeological sources, he nevertheless provides the necessary references to scholarly literature. 2

While in almost every chapter the main focus is on Demosthenes, Worthington at the same time introduces his readers to the political system of Athenian democracy, to the rhetorical strategies of classical Greek orators before the assembly or in the courts, and to the history of the Greek states in the fourth century BC with a focus on Athenian and Macedonian relations in Demosthenes’ lifetime (384-322 BC). He addresses both specialists and interested non-specialists, for example on the rise of Macedon under Philip II in chapter 3 (Greece and the Awakening of Macedon, 42-70) and on the Athenian political and judicial system.

Worthington describes Demosthenes as a hero, but “a flawed one.” He proclaims as his literary aim “as well-rounded a portrait of Demosthenes as possible” (p. VII, see also his well-balanced concluding remarks, p. 339-341: “The best public actions in the cause of liberty and democracy?”). Worthington’s overall portrait turns out to be in several respects more critical towards Demosthenes’ politics and some features of his personal behaviour than, for instance, the recent study by Gustav Adolf Lehmann. 3

A preamble (p. 1-8) briefly discusses Demosthenes’ changing reputation as a ‘politician and hero’ in the general history of reception of his life and in earlier scholarship. Chapter 2 (p. 9-41) deals with Demosthenes’ early years, his family background, his education and the trials against the guardians. The next chapter (“Greece and the Awakening of Macedon,” p. 42-70) focuses on the background of fourth-century Greek history. The next three chapters treat Demosthenes as an aspiring politician in the first main period of his public career during the 350s and early 340s (p. 71-154). Chapters 7-10 (p. 155-254) discuss in great detail the main events and Demosthenes’ policies from the Peace of Philocrates in 346 BC (“an uneasy peace”) to Philip’s victory at Chaironeia (“the end of Greek freedom”). The next two chapters (p. 255-293) deal with the settlement in Greece of 338/337 BC and following years down to the famous Crown Trial in 330 BC which is treated separately in chapter 13 (p. 294-309). The last two chapters focus on Demosthenes’ last years to his death in 322 BC (p. 309-344).

Clearly, the core chapters in Worthington’s book deal with the years of Demosthenes’ political acme, that is roughly with the decade from the crisis of Olynthos to the battle of Chaironeia (349/48-338 BC). The second half of Demosthenes’ career (338-322 BC) is treated more briefly. Worthington maintains that under the reign of Alexander the Great Demosthenes was “far less politically active” than before (p. VIII) and that he followed a cautious course of behaviour and kept a “low profile” in politics (p. 285-291) after the destruction of Thebes in 335 BC and Alexander’s astonishing victories at Issos (in 333) and Gaugamela (in 331), while he was still active in the courts. Admittedly, our latest preserved assembly speech in the corpus about which there is no doubt as to Demosthenes as the orator is the fourth Philippika of 340 BC. But to conclude that this is evidence of Demosthenes’ alleged low profile in politics in the Lykourgan era is to ignore the impact of Demosthenes’ On the Crown on public opinion in Athens and Greece. In many respects this famous court speech was also was an extremely political speech (see Worthington p. 224-228 on the fourth Philippika and p. 294-309 on the Crown Trial). I would like to point also to the discussion about Dem. or. 17 On the Treaty with Alexander, a speech which may well express some Demosthenic opinions. Moreover, one should take into account that for educational or rhetorical purposes the ancient grammarians who collected Demosthenes’ speeches probably focused on the years before Chaironeia.

Apart from official propaganda, the reasons why Philip II attacked the Persian empire have remained unclear, and several plausible suggestions have been offered already both by ancient sources and by modern scholars. Worthington presumes as the main reason (p. 264-265) “the pressing need to acquire money because of his declining revenues.” I would add as a military consideration that after 338 BC and his decisive victory at Chaironeia the king faced the serious dilemma of either being forced to reduce his huge army or of finding a new area of military activity which promised easier victories and more booty than he might win in Thrace or in the Balkans. Isokrates and other counsellors had already suggested Asia Minor.

With regard to scholarly interest in Demosthenes, Worthington notes that in more recent history “the pendulum has swung the other way to focus on Demosthenes the rhetorician rather than the politician” (p. 344). Although Worthington clearly states that “this book is not about Demosthenes the orator” (p. IX), the author amply quotes from the speeches of the Demosthenic corpus and from orations of Demosthenes’ opponents such as Aischines as key sources. 4 He provides his readers with a brief introduction to Athenian deliberative and judicial oratory, too, and he avails himself of the opportunity to comment on the intricate problems of using these rhetorical sources as historical evidence. Worthington (p. 259-262) justly praises the Epitaphios (Funeral Oration Dem. or. 60) of 338/7 BC as “a fitting eulogy to those who died at Chaeronea” (262) and draws interesting comparisons to official commemoration speeches of more recent periods as pieces of historical evidence. 5

Two small quibbles. Worthington accepts the tradition that Demosthenes admired Perikles’ rhetorical style. In my view, however, this tradition may primarily result from Demosthenes’ admiration of the forcefulness of Perikles’ assembly speeches, while Demosthenes clearly differed especially in his ‘histrionic’ modern art of delivery from Perikles’ aristocratic and reserved style. Like earlier scholars, Worthington regards the well-known stories about Demosthenes’ strict training regimen as an orator mainly as inventions of later biographers and Athenian tourist guides (p. 38-41). 6 However, at least some of these stories may go back to almost contemporary and reliable Peripatetic authorities on Demosthenes as an orator, such as Theophrastos of Eresos and Demetrios of Phaleron, and hence in my view there may be some element of truth in them.

The additional material is helpful: 15 figures, four maps, a timetable of the period, a list of speech numbers and titles, and an index. In sum, I would strongly recommend this well-balanced, accessible and thorough monograph to scholars and non-specialist readers.

1. See, among his earlier contributions, Ian Worthington (ed.), Demosthenes: Statesman and Orator, London 2000 idem, Philip II of Macedon, New Haven London 2008 idem / Joseph Roisman (ed.), Blackwell Companion to Ancient Macedonia, Oxford 2010. About 30 other papers of Worthington are listed in the bibliography of this present volume, p. 365-367.

2. Among his astute comments on coinage and money there is a misprint in the following telling comparison with regard to the relation of Athenian wages and contemporary bribes for politicians in the appendix on p. 344: “in 324 Demosthenes was accused of taking a bribe of twenty talents …, the equivalent of hiring (at two talents per day) 60,000 laborers for one day or one laborer for 165 years!” Read: “at two drachmas per day.”

3. Gustav Adolf Lehmann, Demosthenes von Athen. Ein Leben für die Freiheit, Munich 2004. To Worthington’s rich bibliography (p. 347-367) should be added two monographs: Iris Samotta, Demosthenes, Tübingen 2010 and, now, Wolfgang Will, Demosthenes, Darmstadt 2013. On the last two decades of Demosthenes’ career Will’s earlier book Athen und Alexander. Untersuchungen zur Geschichte der Stadt von 338-322 v. Chr., Munich 1983, is still worth consulting and should be added to the bibliography as well, and perhaps this reviewer may also mention one of his own studies Studien zur politischen Biographie des Hypereides. Athen in der Epoche der lykurgischen Reformen und des makedonischen Universalreiches, Munich 1993 2 , where Demosthenes’ politics between ca. 343 and 322 BC are also thoroughly treated.

4. Friedrich Blass, Die attische Beredsamkeit, Leipzig 1887-1898 2 repr. Hildesheim 1962, esp. vol. 3.1, in my view still remains essential reading on Demosthenes the orator. For more recent evaluations and many references to scholarly literature, Worthington rightly praises Lionel Pearson, The Art of Demosthenes, Meisenheim am Glan 1976, and now the masterly study of Douglas M. MacDowell, Demosthenes the Orator, Oxford 2009.

5. Worthington states with reference to Dem. or. 20.141 (p. 259) that “everyone in the city … gathered in the Agora to hear” Demosthenes’ funeral oration. This passage from the speech Against Leptines, however, merely states that the Epitaphios Logos was a peculiar Athenian institution. The Agora as the site of delivery of Demosthenes’ oration is highly improbable, since we learn from Thucydides’ introduction to Perikles’ funeral oration (Thuc. 2.34.5-6), that those speeches usually were delivered from a temporary bema before the Dipylon Gate, which was located not far from the demosion sema in the Kerameikos.

6. See, for instance, Craig Cooper, “Philosophers, Politics, Academics: Demosthenes’ Rhetorical Reputation in Antiquity,” in: Ian Worthington (ed.), Demosthenes. Statesman and Orator, London 2000, 224-245, to whom Worthington refers.


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