Nina ScStr - History

Nina ScStr - History


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Nina
(ScStr: dp. 420 t.; 1. 137'; b. 26'; dr. 9'10"; s. 10.35 k.; cl. Palos)

Nina, a 4th rate iron screw steamer, was laid down by Reaney, Son, and Arehbold, Chester, Pa., in 1864; launched 27 May 1865; delivered at New York Navy Yard 26 September 1865; and placed in service as a yard tug at the Washington Navy Yard 6 January 1866, Ensign F. C. Hall commanding that ship and sister tugs Primrose and Rescue.

Nina operated as a yard tug for the Washington Navy Yard and Naval Gun Faetory through May 1869 and was then converted to a torpedo boat. She commissioned 31 March 1870, Lt. Godfrey Hunter in command, and then sailed for Newport R.I., arriving at the Naval Station 14 April. The ship served as a torpedo boat at Newport through 1883, refitting in May 1884 for special service, and next operated from August to October salvaging the wreck of sidewheel gunboat Tallapoosa sunk in Martha's Vineyard Sound. From 1885 to 1889, Nina served in various capacities at New York Navy Yard, and then returned to Newport from 1890 to 1891.

The converted tugboat returned to New York Navy Yard in 1892 to resume her original duties, continuing her yard work and towing services there for a decade. On 8 October 1902, she commissioned as tender and supply vessel to the Torpedo Boat Flotilla during winter manuevers in the Caribbean. The ship returned to New York 15 March 1903 and decommissioned 6 days later, once again taking up her yard towing chores. Nina was next loaned to the Lighthouse Department to verify aids to navigation near Puerto Rican waters to protect the Fleet conducting Winter manuevers from October 1903 to April 1904. She recommissioned 9 September 1905 for special service with the Board of Inspeetion and Survey, Roekland, Me.

Nifia was ordered converted into a submarine tender 28 December 1905. On 25 May 1906 she arrived at the Newport Naval Torpedo Station, and, following a year's service, was assigned as tender for the 1st Torpedo Flotilla. For the next four years, she served with the Atlantic Fleet's infant submarine force in its pioncer coastal operations from Newport to Annapolis and Norfolk. From 1 December 1908 to 22 February 1909, she participated in the great Review in Hampton Roads following the return of the Great White Fleet from its globe girdling cruise and joined submarines in exercises off the Virginia coast.

At 0630, 6 February 1910, Nina departed Norfolk for Boston and was last sighted off the Capes of the Chesapeake in the midst of a gale. She was never heard from again. The warship was declared lost and struck from the Navy List 15 March 1910, the 30 crewmen and one officer on board being listed as having died on that day. Her loss is one of the continuing mysteries of the sea.


Lakers Head Athletic Trainer Talks About Making History in the NBA: 'It's Really Been a Blessing'

For Los Angeles Lakers fans, Nina Hsieh is a very familiar face and an invaluable member of the staff.

Hsieh, who became the team&aposs Head Athletic Trainer in August 2019 thus becoming the first-ever female Head Athletic Trainer of an NBA team, is a vital part of the organization&aposs success as she not only oversees the training staff and works with the coaches, but she is also responsible for the care and prevention of injuries to the players.

And for the defending champs, this year&aposs season is thankfully not over yet. On Wednesday, LeBron James and Anthony Davis, who both returned to the lineup after their respective injuries, are set to lead the Lakers into the Western Conference play-in tournament against Stephen Curry and the Golden State Warriors.

In recognition and celebration of Asian American Pacific Islander (AAPI) Heritage Month, Hsieh tells PEOPLE about her career and how she works hard to ensure the highest level of on-court performance from James, Davis and all the Lakers.

PEOPLE: You were born in Taiwan and grew up in Southern California. What made you want to work in sports? Did you know you wanted to be an athletic trainer?

NINA HSIEH: Yeah, my childhood was great. I came here when I was almost 4 years old and I spent every vacation from school, whether it was winter break or summer break, in Taiwan the majority of my childhood all the way up to high school. I believe I got the best of both worlds, both cultures. I started playing sports when I was super young, just loved being outdoors and spending time with friends. I can&apost say it was anything different than a lot of stories you hear. I grew up playing multiple sports — softball being my main one. Played all the way up through high school, then got hurt in high school. I knew I wanted to do something in the healthcare profession and just found more interest as I was going through my own rehab and injuries.

You served as the athletic trainer for the University of California, Santa Barbara women&aposs basketball team and men&aposs soccer team before joining the Lakers organization in 2008 as the head athletic trainer for the Lakers G League affiliate South Bay Lakers. How was that transition?

I feel like it was a pretty easy transition, if we&aposre talking about personnel. Because most of your South Bay Lakers players, they come out of college early so they&aposre in the same age group or they&aposre pretty fresh out of college. So the age group doesn&apost really change, the actual work side of it was a huge difference from UCSB to South Bay Lakers. The different roles that I played that was a bigger difference. Not just athletic training, but it was heavy in demand for the strength and conditioning side, the equipment manager, assisting in travel. There was a lot more responsibility than just athletic training.

Then, in 2016, you got the call to go up to the official Lakers staff as an Assistant Athletic Trainer. Did you feel like, "I&aposve worked hard, I&aposve earned this position. This is the part of my career that I&aposve always wanted."

Yes, that&aposs exactly. You nailed it right there. Transition, of course, it&aposs different, right? Because now the level of play, the athletes, it&aposs a whole different level. It&aposs the best of the best out there. But it&aposs everything you said, you&aposre like, "This is all the sweat and tears and the years of spending it in the minor leagues." This is the moment.

With the promotion to Head Athletic Trainer in 2019, you made history in the league. Did you feel any pressure being the first-ever female Head Athletic Trainer of an NBA team?

I don&apost see it as any different pressure than anybody that&aposs taking a head role. I&aposd like to say that my role was given because of my hard work, [rather] than female or male. I feel like anybody that&aposs taken a head role, I think the pressure is about the same, right? I think for the community though, it&aposs not necessarily pressure, but it&aposs just representing. Trying to represent the best that I can be for the young females out there. And trying to just do my job, I know that I&aposve done something right. I don&apost feel like it&aposs extra pressure. I just feel like, "Hey, you have to, kind of, stand out for the females, but just do your job, do your job right. And everything should flow."


Contents

Alexander and Nina are inseparable.

Young Nina first appears in Chapter 5, when Edward and Alphonse Elric arrive at her father's estate in East City in order to study bio-alchemy with the help of his specialized notes and resources. However, the lonely little girl quickly forms a rapport with the Elric brothers, convincing them to spend a great deal of their time each day playing with Nina and her lovable dog, Alexander. This immediately attracts Alphonse's attention but Ed gets annoyed at Al for getting distracted. The three kids (and canine) grow very close over the few days of their acquaintance after Nina confides in the boys that her loneliness is largely due to the fact that her mother had left her father two years ago, just before Shou Tucker received his State Alchemist certification, after which point his increasing immersion into his research greatly limited the amount of time he was able to spend with his young daughter. The Elrics immediately understand how Nina feels as they remember their own father paying little attention to them and declare their intention to play with Nina and Alexander and the three kids and dog spend most of the rest of the day playing together.

Unfortunately, what the little girl did not understand was that her mom had not abandoned her family as Shou had claimed, but rather had become an unwilling human test subject in the secretly deranged State Alchemist's chimerical experiments and died. As Shou's yearly assessment approaches and his license comes into jeopardy, Nina attempts to console her depressed father, but her reassurances merely inspire the man to begin his depraved practice once again. While the Elrics are away, Shou transmutes Nina and Alexander into a Human Chimera using the same method with which he transmuted his wife. As he attempts to pass Nina off as his second speech-capable chimera, however, Edward realizes the horror of what the Sewing-Life Alchemist has done when Nina speaks innocently to him from inside her new monstrous form. But while Edward loses his temper and begins to thrash Tucker, Nina intervenes sadly, understanding the situation just enough to plead piteously for her father's life. Incapable of reversing the transmutation and not knowing what else to do, Ed and Al apologize to Nina and leave, but report Shou's actions to Colonel Mustang at Eastern HQ.

The Tucker House is labeled a crime scene as Shou and Nina are held under house arrest in anticipation of Sewing-Life's incarceration and court-martial, but before his transport to Central City arrives, the Tuckers are visited by the State Alchemist-killer Scar, who assassinates Shou. Nina starts to mourn for her father in spite of what he has done to her just before Scar delivers a mercy-killing to her, having realized that her future in this form can only be one of torment and suffering. Using his Destruction Alchemy, Scar breaks down the chimera's insides, instantly ending her life before praying for her soul as he flees the scene.

Initially unaware of Nina's fate, Ed sees his late mother turn into the result of his and Al's ill-fated attempt to resurrect her and Nina and Alexander turn into a chimera in a nightmare, although the manga only features the nightmare involving his mother. The Elrics find out from Hawkeye that Nina's father would have faced decommission and court-martial for what he did to her but both have been murdered and Mustang, Maes Hughes and Armstrong are investigating the scene. The Elrics remain heavily conflicted over their inability to rescue Nina. Edward is depressed and humbled by the fact that even with all his power, saving such a sweet little girl was beyond him. While the Elrics are lamenting their failures to save their mother and Nina, Scar attacks them and they later find out that he murdered Nina and her father.

While the Elrics are investigating Tim Marcoh's research, Maes Hughes tells them the case of Nina and her father is still open only to apologize and drop the subject as it annoys Ed.

Ed continues to have further nightmares involving Nina as well as becoming emotionally compromised when reminded of her. In his final encounter with the Truth, Ed references her when the Truth asks if he's willing to become a normal human to which Ed replies that he already is a normal human, one who couldn't save one little girl. At the end of the series, Alphonse cites Nina as a constant point of motivation for his brother and himself on their path to discover new ways in which alchemy can be used to help people rather than harm them.

In the Anime, Nina first appears in the teaser trailer at the end of Episode 3 and in the following episode, her story is expanded to the extent of a scene depicting her with Alexander, her father, and the Elrics conversing indoors as night falls. Overhearing the Elrics and her father discussing his upcoming assessment, Nina promises her father she and Alexander will make sure he doesn't lose his Licence but this only inspires Tucker to transmute her and Alexander under the false pretense of promising to play with them.

In Episode 13, Alphonse remembers Nina's chimera form while in the captivity of Greed and his Human Chimeras.

In Episode 19, Alphonse uses his memories of Nina, Maes and Martel as his inspiration to defend Hawkeye from Lust and in the following episode, Ed is haunted by the memory of seeing Nina as a chimera with her father taunting him.

In Episode 22 and the following episode, the Elrics confront Scar for the lives he's taken including those of Nina and her father and prepare to finish him off to avenge her until they are intercepted by May Chang.

In Episode 26, one of the souls bulging from within Envy asks Ed 'Wanna play?', reminding him of Nina after her transmutation.


In Episode 51, one of the immortal soldiers utters "big brother" in the voice of the chimera.

In Episode 54, Envy reminds Ed of Nina's fate while confronted by Ed, Scar, Mustang, and Hawkeye.


Duke's search included ADs from other programs

The Raleigh New & Observer reports that King emerged from a field of candidates that included Villanova athletics director Mark Jackson, Rice athletics director Joe Karlgaard and Florida executive associate athletics director Lynda Tealer.

General Motors CEO Richard Wagoner, a Duke graduate and former Duke Board of Trustee chair, helmed the search to fill the position.

“We set out on a national search to find the best possible leader, someone with the experience, intellect and vision to meet the challenges of the future and a sharp understanding of our commitment to excellence in academics and competition,” Wagoner said in a statement. “The committee was enthusiastic about Nina’s candidacy, and I could not be more excited to see her at the helm of Duke athletics.”


Teen Debunks Professor’s Claim That Anti-Irish Signs Never Existed

Beginning in the 1840s, Ireland’s rotting potato crops drove hundreds of thousands of its people to flee to the United States. The discrimination that Irish immigrants encountered in their new home was hardly subtle. Instead, it was as plain as the black-and-white print that blared “No Irish Need Apply” in newspaper employment advertisements and window signs.

According to one academic, however, that history, which has been handed down from generation to generation of Irish-Americans, was 𠇊 myth of victimization.” Richard Jensen, a Yale Ph.D. and a retired history professor from the University of Illinois at Chicago, wrote in a 2002 article in the Oxford Journal of Social History that although “No Irish Need Apply” (NINA) signs existed in Great Britain, “There is no evidence for any printed NINA signs in America or for their display at places of employment other than private homes.”

Jensen wrote that the prejudice that existed was anti-Catholic rather than anti-Irish and that “there have been no documented instances of job discrimination against Irish men.” The professor said his searches of help wanted advertisements in online newspaper databases revealed that NINA ads for men were so rare that they amounted to fewer than two per decade from the 1850s to the 1920s. Jensen theorized that the myth arose from an American adaptation of a British song entitled “No Irish Need Apply” that became popular in the early 1860s.

“The NINA myth fostered among the Irish a misperception or gross exaggeration that other Americans were prejudiced against them, and were deliberately holding back their economic progress,” wrote Jensen, who added that the stories’ continued prevalence among Irish-Americans was perhaps due to “the political need to be bona-fide victims.”

Jensen’s argument that anti-Irish employment signs were urban legends seeped into the mainstream of academia and went largely unrefuted over the ensuing decade—until 14-year-old Rebecca Fried found out about it. According to The Daily Beast web site, the incoming freshman at Sidwell Friends School𠅊 private school in Washington, D.C., that counts President Barack Obama’s daughters among its students—read an article her father brought home about Jensen’s research and found the purported lack of NINA ads surprising.

An anti-Irish cartoon by Thomas Nast.

“Just for the fun of it, I started to run a few quick searches on an online newspaper database that I found on Google,” she told The Daily Beast. “I was really surprised when I started finding examples of NINA ads in old 19th-century newspapers pretty quickly.”

The deeper Fried dug through online archives, the more she found. The teenaged historian discovered dozens of NINA newspaper advertisements printed in big cities such as New York and Boston and small towns such as Alpine, Texas, and Monmouth, Illinois. In 1842 editions of the New York Sun alone, she found 15 instances of advertisements telling Irish men not to apply. In addition, Fried’s research unearthed newspaper accounts mentioning NINA signs appearing in workplaces and public accommodations as well as reports of Irish-American workers protesting and striking in response. Contrary to Jensen’s contention that no court cases involving NINA existed, Fried found one from 1853 and another from 1881.

As The Daily Beast reports, Fried contacted Kerby Miller, a recently retired history professor at the University of Missouri who had been skeptical of Jensen’s findings, about her research, and he encouraged the teenager to publish her findings. In July, the Oxford Journal of Social History, the same academic publication that printed Jensen’s 2002 article, published Fried’s rebuttal: “No Irish Need Deny: Evidence for the Historicity of NINA Restrictions in Advertisements and Signs.”

Fried argued that Jensen’s thesis “requires revision” based on her findings. “The documentary record better supports the earlier view that Irish-Americans have a communal recollection of NINA advertising because NINA advertising did, in fact, exist over a substantial period of United States history, sometimes on a fairly widespread basis,” Fried wrote.

Jensen told the Washington Post that the dozens of examples of NINA ads cited by Fried in her piece still do not prove that anti-Irish job discrimination was anything but rare. “I will suggest that that may be a lot for a historian to digest, but there was very little for an actual Irishman to see,” he said.

A spirited back-and-forth debate between Jensen and Fried recently arose in the comments section of an article on the IrishCentral.com web site detailing the teenager’s research. “It’s a matter of whether the glass is half full or half empty,” Jensen told Fried. “I think you have a very big glass, with a couple of drops of water at the bottom, and you call it half-full.” Responding to a request by the web site to bolster Fried’s research, IrishCentral readers have reported finding more than 1,000 other instances of NINA advertisements in online newspaper databases.

The journal article on anti-Irish job discrimination may not be Fried’s last. She told The Daily Beast she is considering 𠇎xploring other areas where digitized newspaper evidence might supply new historical insights.”

America: Promised Land The 2-part special premieres Memorial Day at 9/8c on HISTORY.


El Niño

During El Niño, trade winds weaken. Warm water is pushed back east, toward the west coast of the Americas.

El Niño means Little Boy, or Christ Child in Spanish. South American fishermen first noticed periods of unusually warm water in the Pacific Ocean in the 1600s. The full name they used was El Niño de Navidad, because El Niño typically peaks around December.

El Niño can affect our weather significantly. The warmer waters cause the Pacific jet stream to move south of its neutral position. With this shift, areas in the northern U.S. and Canada are dryer and warmer than usual. But in the U.S. Gulf Coast and Southeast, these periods are wetter than usual and have increased flooding.

El Niño causes the Pacific jet stream to move south and spread further east. During winter, this leads to wetter conditions than usual in the Southern U.S. and warmer and drier conditions in the North.

El Niño also has a strong effect on marine life off the Pacific coast. During normal conditions, upwelling brings water from the depths to the surface this water is cold and nutrient rich. During El Niño, upwelling weakens or stops altogether. Without the nutrients from the deep, there are fewer phytoplankton off the coast. This affects fish that eat phytoplankton and, in turn, affects everything that eats fish. The warmer waters can also bring tropical species, like yellowtail and albacore tuna, into areas that are normally too cold.


El Nino & La Nina Information

The El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is a recurring climate pattern involving changes in the temperature of waters in the central and eastern tropical Pacific Ocean. On periods ranging from about three to seven years, the surface waters across a large swath of the tropical Pacific Ocean warm or cool by anywhere from 1°C to 3°C, compared to normal.

This oscillating warming and cooling pattern, referred to as the ENSO cycle, directly affects rainfall distribution in the tropics and can have a strong influence on weather across the United States and other parts of the world. El Niño and La Niña are the extreme phases of the ENSO cycle between these two phases is a third phase called ENSO-neutral.

  • El Niño: A warming of the ocean surface, or above-average sea surface temperatures (SST), in the central and eastern tropical Pacific Ocean. Over Indonesia, rainfall tends to become reduced while rainfall increases over the central and eastern tropical Pacific Ocean. The low-level surface winds, which normally blow from east to west along the equator (&ldquoeasterly winds&rdquo), instead weaken or, in some cases, start blowing the other direction (from west to east or &ldquowesterly winds&rdquo). In general, the warmer the ocean temperature anomalies, the stronger the El Niño (and vice-versa).
  • La Niña: A cooling of the ocean surface, or below-average sea surface temperatures (SST), in the central and eastern tropical Pacific Ocean. Over Indonesia, rainfall tends to increase while rainfall decreases over the central and eastern tropical Pacific Ocean. The normal easterly winds along the equator become even stronger. In general, the cooler the ocean temperature anomalies, the stronger the La Niña (and vice-versa).
  • Neutral: Neither El Niño or La Niña. Often tropical Pacific SSTs are generally close to average. However, there are some instances when the ocean can look like it is in an El Niño or La Niña state, but the atmosphere is not playing along (or vice versa).

Maps of sea surface temperature anomaly in the Pacific Ocean during a strong La Niña (top, December 1988) and a strong El Niño (bottom, December 1997). Maps by NOAA Climate.gov.

ENSO is one of the most important climate phenomena on Earth due to its ability to change the global atmospheric circulation, which in turn, influences temperature and precipitation across the globe. We also focus on ENSO because we can often predict its arrival many seasons in advance of its strongest impacts on weather and climate.

So, by now, you might have noticed that while &ldquoENSO&rdquo is a nice catchall acronym for all three states, that acronym doesn&rsquot actually have the word La Niña in it. Why is that? Well, that is a fluke of history. Before La Niña was even recognized, South American fisherman noticed the warm up of coastal waters occurred every so often around Christmas. They referred to the warming as &ldquoEl Niño,&rdquo (niño being Spanish for a boy child) in connection with the Christmas holiday.

Sir Gilbert Walker discovered the &ldquoSouthern Oscillation,&rdquo or large-scale changes in sea level pressure across Indonesia and the tropical Pacific. However, he did not recognize that it was linked to changes in the Pacific Ocean or El Niño. It wasn&rsquot until the late 1960s that Jacob Bjerknes and others realized that the changes in the ocean and the atmosphere were connected and the hybrid term &ldquoENSO&rdquo was born. It wasn&rsquot until the 1980s or later that the terms La Niña and Neutral gained prominence.

Typical winter impacts associated with ENSO neutral events. Colder probabilities are favored across north-central and northeast portions of the US, due to a polar jet stream shifted further south. Meanwhile, warmer probabilities are favored across ths southern US, with above normal precipitation favored across portions of the southeast US. Image courtesy of Ray Wolf, National Weather Serivce.

Typical late fall through early spring upper level jet stream positions associated with moderate to strong La Niña (left) and El Niño (right) events. During La Niña, a variable Pacific jet stream in association with a polar jet stream shifted further south favors below normal precipitation across the southern US, with below normal temperatures across the northern US. During El Niño, a strong and amplified Pacific jet stream extending across the southern US in association with a polar jet stream shifted further north into Canada favors above normal precipitation across the southern US, and above normal temperatures over the northern US. Based on original graphics from NOAA&rsquos Climate Prediction Center.

El Niño Temperature/Precipitation Anomalies

Below are winter (November-March) and summer (May-September) temperature and precipitation anomalies for El Niño episodes since 1950, courtesy of NOAA's Earth System Research Laboratory (ESRL). The anomalies are based 1971-2000 and 1981-2010 normals. These composites are not intended to be a forecast of expected conditions. Rather, they use historical data to highlight locations where ENSO can potentially impact temperature and precipitation. Other climate and weather processes along with atmospheric variability may make the impacts of one ENSO event different than another. Some events may be associated with very extreme climate conditions which may dominate the composites.

The below composites suggest slightly warmer than normal temperatures are favored across northeast Kansas during winter, with near normal temperature elsewhere. Slightly cooler than normal temperatures are favored over northwest Kansas during summer, with near normal temperatures elsewhere. Meanwhile, near to slightly above normal precipitation is favored across much of the state during winter and over northwest Kansas during summer, with near normal precipitation elsewhere.

Winter (Nov-Mar) Temperature Summer (May-Sept) Temperature
Winter (Nov-Mar) Precipitation Summer (May-Sept) Precipitation

La Niña Temperature/Precipitation Anomalies

Below are winter (November-March) and summer (May-September) temperature and precipitation anomalies for La Niña episodes since 1950, courtesy of NOAA's Earth System Research Laboratory (ESRL). The anomalies are based 1971-2000 normals. These composites are not intended to be a forecast of expected conditions. Rather, they use historical data to highlight locations where ENSO can potentially impact temperature and precipitation. Other climate and weather processes along with atmospheric variability may make the impacts of one ENSO event different than another. Some events may be associated with very extreme climate conditions which may dominate the composites.

The below composites suggest near to above normal temperatures are favored across Kansas during winter and summer months. Meanwhile, below normal precipitation is favored across much of the state during the winter and summer months.

Winter (Nov-Mar) Temperature Summer (May-Sept) Temperature
Winter (Nov-Mar) Precipitation Summer (May-Sept) Precipitation

El Niño: Risk of Weather Extremes

The images below depict the odds of extreme wet/dry or warm/cold three-month periods associated with historical El Niño episodes since 1950. Extreme weather is defined as being in the highest or lowest 20% of the 100 year record. The climatological average risk of extreme weather any given season is 20%. These composites are not intended to be a forecast of expected conditions. Rather, they use historical data to highlight locations where ENSO can potentially impact temperature and precipitation.

El Niño: Risk of Temperature Extremes

December - February January - March February - April March - May
April - June May - July June - August July - September
August - October September - November October - December November - January

The above images depict chances of extreme warm or cold three-month periods associated with past El Niño's since 1950. Warm colors indicate an increased risk of warm temperature extremes, while cool colors indicate an increased risk of cold temperature extremes. With the exception of late fall through early winter, the risk of cool temperature extremes exists much of the year across Kansas. Click each image to enlarge. Images courtesy of NOAA's Earth System Research Laboratory.

El Niño: Risk of Precipitation Extremes

December - February January - March February - April March - May
April - June May - July June - August July - September
August - October September - November October - December November - January
The above images depict chances of extreme wet or dry three-month periods associated with past El Niño's since 1950. Warm colors indicate an increased risk of dry precipitation extremes, while green colors indicate an increased risk of wet precipitation extremes. Other than a few exceptions, there is generally an increased risk of wet precipitation extremes throughout the year across Kansas. Click each image to enlarge. Images courtesy of NOAA's Earth System Research Laboratory.

La Niña: Risk of Weather Extremes

The images below depict the odds of extreme wet/dry or warm/cold three-month periods associated with historical La Niña episodes since 1950. Extreme weather is defined as being in the highest or lowest 20% of the 100 year record. The climatological average risk of extreme weather any given season is 20%. These composites are not intended to be a forecast of expected conditions. Rather, they use historical data to highlight locations where ENSO can potentially impact temperature and precipitation.

La Niña: Risk of Temperature Extremes

December - February January - March February - April March - May
April - June May - July June - August July - September
August - October September - November October - December November - January

The above images depict chances of extreme warm or cold three-month periods associated with past La Niña's since 1950. Warm colors indicate an increased risk of warm temperature extremes, while cool colors indicate an increased risk of cold temperature extremes. In general, there is an increased risk of warm temperature extremes fall and winter across Kansas, with an increased risk of cool temperature extremes during the summer. Click each image to enlarge. Images courtesy of NOAA's Earth System Research Laboratory.

La Niña: Risk of Precipitation Extremes

December - February January - March February - April March - May
April - June May - July June - August July - September
August - October September - November October - December November - January

The above images depict chances of extreme wet or dry three-month periods associated with past La Niña's since 1950. Warm colors indicate an increased risk of dry precipitation extremes, while green colors indicate an increased risk of wet precipitation extremes. Other than a few exceptions, there is generally an increased risk of dry precipitation extremes across Kansas throughout the year. Click each image to enlarge. Images courtesy of NOAA's Earth System Research Laboratory.

Agricultural Impacts

The following images show historical ENSO impacts on corn yield across the Heartland. Unfortunately, impacts are unavailable for crops other than corn at this time. These composites are not intended to be a forecast of expected yields. Rather, they use historical data (1981-2010) to highlight locations where ENSO can potentially impact climate conditions and associated corn yields to help you make more informed farm management decisions. Images courtesy of Useful to Useable (U2U).

Corn Yield Departure from Normal

Historical corn yields (left) and corn yield departure from normal (right) for El Niño years since 1981. Green colors on the "departure from normal" image depict above normal yields, while brown colors indicate below normal yields. Click images to enlarge. Images courtesy of Useful to Useable (U2U).

Corn Yield Departure from Normal

Historical corn yields (left) and corn yield departure from normal (right) for La Niña years since 1981. Green colors on the "departure from normal" image depict above normal yields, while brown colors indicate below normal yields. Click images to enlarge. Images courtesy of Useful to Useable (U2U).

Corn Yield Departure from Normal

Historical corn yields (left) and corn yield departure from normal (right) for ENSO neutral years since 1981. Green colors on the "departure from normal" image depict above normal yields, while brown colors indicate below normal yields. Click images to enlarge. Images courtesy of Useful to Useable (U2U).

Official Long-Range Forecasts

The below long-range outlooks are courtesy of the Climate Prediction Center (CPC). They indicate probabilities of above, near or below normal temperature/precipitation for the given time period. They do NOT represent the expected magnitude of warm/cool and/or wet/dry weather. Professionals at CPC take into account many different factors when assembling these forecasts, including the ENSO composites posted throughout this report. Click images to enlarge.

One-Month Forecast

Above/Below Normal Temperature Probabilities Above/Below Normal Precipitation Probabilities

Three-Month Forecast

Above/Below Normal Temperature Probabilities Above/Below Normal Precipitation Probabilities

ENSO & Spring Severe Thunderstorm Frequency

A paper published in Nature Geoscience in April 2015 by John Allen, Michael Tippett, and Adam Sobel examines the influence of El Niño/La Niña on springtime hailstorms and tornadoes across the contiguous United States from late winter through spring. The below images are adapted from the paper, and show tornado and hail frequencies for the spring months (March-May) during El Niño (left column) and La Niña (right column). The authors explain that the connection between El Niño/La Niña conditions and summertime storms is less clear, and unfortunately that is the time of year when severe storms peak throughout much of the United States. But for springtime, at least, El Niño/La Niña data may be able to refine seasonal severe weather outlooks. These composites are not intended to be a forecast of expected conditions. Rather, they use historical data to highlight locations where ENSO can potentially impact spring severe weather.


Struggles and Career Renaissance

As the 1960s drew to a close, Simone tired of the American music scene and the country&aposs deeply divided racial politics. Having been neighbors with Malcolm X and Betty Shabazz in Mount Vernon, New York, she later lived in several different countries, including Liberia, Switzerland, England and Barbados before eventually settling down in the South of France. For years, Simone also struggled with severe mental health issues and her finances, and clashed with managers, record labels and the Internal Revenue Service.

Simone, who had taken a break from recording in the mid-70s, returned in 1978 with the album Baltimore, with the title track a cover version of a Randy Newman tune. Critics gave the album a warm reception, but it did not fare well commercially.

Simone went through a career renaissance in the 1980s when her song "My Baby Just Cares For Me" was used in a Chanel No. 5 perfume commercial in the United Kingdom. The song thus became a Top 10 hit in Britain in 1985. She also penned her autobiography, I Put a Spell on You, which was published in 1991. Her next recording, A Single Woman, came out in 1993.

Touring periodically, Simone maintained a strong fan base that filled concert halls whenever she performed. In 1998, she appeared in the New York tri-state area, her first trip there in five years, specifically playing at the New Jersey Performing Arts Center in Newark. The New York Times critic Jon Pareles reviewed the concert, noting that "there is still power in her voice" and that the show featured "a beloved sound, a celebrated personality, and a repertory that magnifies them both." That same year, Simone attended South African leader Nelson Mandela&aposs 80th birthday celebration.


2020: Toshiko Akiyoshi

Who is Toshiko Akiyoshi?

Born in Manchuria, Akiyoshi first moved to Japan with her parents at the end of World War II, and then to the United States in 1956 to study at Berklee School of Music in Boston, Massachusetts. Following a series of performances in top New York venues, in 1973, she and her husband, saxophonist/flutist Lew Tabackin, formed the Toshiko Akiyoshi Jazz Orchestra. Known for her uniquely textural big band compositions and Japanese influence, Akiyoshi has received fourteen Grammy Award nominations, was the first woman to win Best Arranger and Composer awards in Down Beat magazine's annual Readers' Poll, and received the title of NEA Jazz Master in 2007.

To listen to the words of Toshiko Akiyoshi, visit her Smithsonian Jazz Oral History Interview.


Nina Simone biographical timeline

Nina Simone is born Eunice Kathleen Waymon in Tryon, North Carolina on February 21, 1933.

Simone graduates from Allen High School for Girls in Asheville, North Carolina. She spends the summer at the Juilliard School as a student of Carl Friedberg, preparing for an audition at the Curtis Institute of Music in Philadelphia. Her application was later denied, which Simone believed was due to racial discrimination.

Simone's first public performance under the name "Nina Simone" at the Midtown Bar and Grill in Atlantic City.

Simone records her first album, "Little Girl Blue," a mixture of jazz, blues and classical.

"Little Girl Blue" is released. After the album's success, Simone signs a contract with Colpix Records and records a number of studio and live albums, including live albums "Nina Simone at Town Hall" and "The Amazing Nina Simone."

Simone’s music and voice become intertwined with the civil rights movement.

Release of her album, "Nina at Newport."

Release of her studio album, "Forbidden Fruit," Simone's fifth album since "Little Girl Blue."

Release of albums "At the Village Gate" and "Nina Simone Sings Ellington."

“Mississippi Goddamn” is written and released in response to the assassination of Medgar Evers and the bombing of the 16th Street Baptist Church in Birmingham, Alabama.

Simone signs to Philips Records, a Dutch company that allows her to record songs that draw on her African American heritage. Release of her studio album, "Broadway - Blues - Ballads."

Release of her studio albums, "Let It All Out," "I Put a Spell on You" and "Pastel Blues."

Release of her studio album, "Wild Is the Wind."

Release of her studio albums, "High Priestess of Soul," "Nina Simone Sings the Blues" and "Silk & Soul."

Release of her studio and live album, "'Nuff Said!"

Release of her studio album, "Black Gold."

Release of her studio album, "Gifted & Black."

Release of her 13th studio album, "Here Comes the Sun."

Simone leaves the United States for Barbados. She relocates to Liberia, then to various places in Europe, where she spends the rest of her life.

Release of her 14th studio album, "Baltimore."

Release of her final album, "A Single Woman."

Nina Simone dies at her home in Carry-le-Rouet, France at the age of 70.

Simone's childhood home in Tryon, North Carolina is designated a National Treasure by the National Trust for Historic Preservation.


Watch the video: Tekken 7 All Nina Williams Scenes